North Dakota Supreme Court

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North Dakota Supreme Court

NDROC
Effective March 5, 1997

RULE 11.6 MEDIUM-NEUTRAL CASE CITATIONS

(a) Citations Before January 1, 1997. The initial citation of any published opinion of the Supreme Court released before January 1, 1997, contained in a brief, memorandum, or other document filed with any trial or appellate court and a citation in the table of cases in a brief must include a reference to the volume and page number of the North Western Reporter in which the opinion is published. Subsequent citations within a brief, memorandum, or other document must include the page number and sufficient reference to identify the initial citation.

(b) Citations After January 1, 1997. When available, initial citations must include the volume and initial page number of the North Western Reporter in which the opinion is published. The initial citation of any published opinion of the Supreme Court released on or after January 1, 1997, contained in a brief, memorandum, or other document filed with any trial or appellate court and the citation in the table of cases in a brief must also include a reference to the calendar year in which the decision was filed, followed by the court designation of "ND", followed by a sequential number assigned by the Clerk of the Supreme Court. A paragraph citation should be placed immediately following the sequential number assigned to the case. Subsequent citations within the brief, memorandum or other document must include the paragraph number and sufficient references to identify the initial citation.

EXPLANATORY NOTE

Rule 11.6 was adopted, effective March 5, 1997, subject to comment, to implement the use of medium-neutral case citations in North Dakota.

For Illustrative Purposes.

Cite to a North Dakota Supreme Court Opinion published prior to January 1, 1997 as follows:

Smith v. Jones, 500 NW2d 600, 601 (ND 1994).

Smith, 500 NW2d at 601.

Black v. Black, 90 ND 100, 101, 400 NW2d 500, 501 (1976); or Black v. Black, 400 NW2d 500, 501 (1976).

Black, 90 ND at 101, 400 NW2d at 501; or Black, 400 NW2d at 501.

If the immediately preceding authority is a pre-January 1, 1997 opinion, cite to the page number of the reporter.

Id. at 601;

Id., 400 NW2d at 601.

Cite to a North Dakota Supreme Court Opinion published after January 1, 1997, as follows:

Before publication in North Western Reporter:

Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15.

After publication in North Western Reporter:

Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, 600 NW2d 900.

Spot cite to a North Dakota Supreme Court Opinion published after January 1, 1997, as follows:

Before publication in North Western Reporter:

Smith v. Jones, 1996 ND 15, ¶21;

Smith, 1996 ND 15, ¶¶21-25.

After publication in North Western Reporter:

Smith v. Jones, 1996 ND 15, ¶21, 600 NW2d 900;

Smith, 1996 ND 15, ¶¶21-25, 600 NW2d 900.

If the immediately preceding authority is a post-January 1, 1997 opinion, cite to the paragraph number:

Id. at ¶15.

The use of the ¶ symbol in spot citations is necessary to distinguish paragraph numbers from page numbers.