*Teresa Stanton, Reference/Foreign and International Law Librarian,
University of North Carolina, conducted the oral history.
I am the Foreign and International Law Librarian and Lecturer in Law at
the University of Chicago D'Angelo Law Library. I was born in Haiti and
I am a naturalized citizen, so every once in a while there may be a
little French accent, a little Creole accent creeping in.
Q: How did you come to work as FCIL librarian?
I was an undergraduate at the University of Chicago, I worked in the
law library as a circulation desk attendant, checking out books to
people, shelving books, filing looseleaf services, and so on. I
continued to work in the law library after graduation. I was a
reserve/tracing assistant, then an evening circulation desk supervisor.
As I was working at the law library, I realized I liked being able to
help people find the books they needed and decided to become a legal
reference librarian in an academic law library. For that I needed to
have a library science degree and a law degree. I got those and, when
it came time to graduate, I thought “I need a job.”
University of Minnesota Law Library happened to have openings for two
reference positions at the time and, for one of them, they hoped that
the person would have foreign language skills. They hired me and they
“grew me” into a foreign and international legal reference librarian.
did an apprenticeship with the Foreign Law Librarian at the U of C,
Adolf Sprudzs, to learn how to select FCIL materials and bibliographic
tools for fielding FCIL reference questions. I went on a practicum to
work with UN documents in Kiel, Germany, and visited other countries in
Europe during my practicum. I attended workshops and institutes for
training the next generation of FCIL librarians. I was at Minnesota
from 1986 to 1992, then I returned to the U of C to succeed Mr. Sprudzs
as Foreign Law Librarian in 1992.
Q: What types of things did you learn on the job?
learned everything on the job – except for cataloging and
classification. General reference approaches, the knowledge of subject
headings and using the catalog to find information, that I learned in
library school, but everything in the specialized area, I learned on
Q: You brought languages with you – French and Creole- do you speak other languages? Did you bring all of them to the job?
I have German and Spanish. In all of them except Creole, I got trained
in classes. I took all of them in school. In college I majored in
French and I took courses in German and Spanish.
Q: How important is it to have knowledge of foreign languages for FCIL jobs?
Reading knowledge only is quite sufficient. Depending on the job you’re
doing, they are not that necessary. In my job I don’t have to speak a
foreign language very often. Every once in a while – once in a blue
moon – someone might expect me to speak to a visitor in a foreign
language, but that’s once in a blue moon.
In terms of
needing to have reading knowledge, it depends on your job. One of the
big parts of my job is to select foreign language materials, so it is
helpful to have some knowledge of other languages. For reference
purposes, it may make some transactions quicker.
for the most part, there are certain things that can help you use
foreign language materials without fluency. Catalog subject headings
will be in English. There will be a whole bunch of clues about what the
topic is even if the title is in a foreign language. You can also use
bilingual dictionaries. There are also many people in the profession
who have language skills and they can help you too. So, my short answer
is that maybe foreign language skills are overrated.
Q: What are your impressions of how the SIS and the profession have changed over time?
think in the beginning we had leaders in the SIS who were more
scholarly, I would say. They did in-depth, original research and wrote
books on how to find treaties, how to research the law of particular
countries, how to find and use international documents. They had
fluency in and mastery of a variety of languages. They were experts
with years of experience, specialists steeped and learned in the
bibliography and substance of the field. So early on, they contributed
book-length FCIL research guides. They taught at workshops and
institutes. They gave us some of the resources we are using still
today. Some of these people have passed on, to other professions, have
retired, or are no longer with us. So, there were more specialists,
more scholars in the SIS in the beginning. We have lost many of our
specialists and will be losing even more in the future.
think our SIS has grown. I was looking at the chronology and there were
about one hundred and something people early on – in the 1980’s – but
now, I don’t know, we have maybe four hundred? The number of people in
the SIS has increased, but we are losing some of the specialists,
people with more expertise, people who are more scholarly. We now have
more generalists in the SIS. And electronic resources have transformed
the nature of our scholarship.
Q: Where do you see
the SIS going? What would you say to recruit more librarians to FCIL
librarianship? What are the selling points?
selling point for me is that there is something very special about
working with people from all over the world. There is a connection that
you make through the FCIL-SIS and librarianship that is a community, a
group of people who are doing something really special.
are relied upon for expertise in foreign law resources and foreign
countries. People don’t have access to that information as much, even
with everything that is available on the Internet. We still have the
language skills, we still have the knowledge of the resources for these
systems and these countries, and comparative and international law,
beyond what you might find on the Internet. We have more in-depth
knowledge of the legal information sources for these systems.
we get to travel a lot! I really like meeting our counterparts in other
countries. So there’s travel, there’s the “specialness” of having
expertise in the field, of having dominion or ownership of a part of
law librarianship, and there’s variety. Another part about my
profession is that most of us are also doing general, Anglo-American
reference, so we get to keep our feet in the middle – in both camps.
Somewhat like a computing services librarian has that special skill, or
government documents librarians have that special skill, you get to
keep up your general skills as well as skills in your special area.
Q: Is there anything else you would like to state for the record and for future generations?
think that what I want to say is that I am very pleased with the new
people that have come into our profession. I really think it is
important for all of us to do more active recruiting, to bring more
people in because we need to fill our profession. If there are people
with language skills out there (even if it is overrated), that is a
resource for us. If there are people who have knowledge of
international documents, of living overseas or traveling overseas, of
foreign legal systems, we need to bring them in.
I would like to say that our SIS – our profession – has grown. Yes, we
are losing some of the specialists of the past, the people who have
retired or who have gone from our lives, but we are getting people in
who have a lot of energy and who bring other things to the table. We
need to grow more foreign and international law librarians and we need
to take a more active part, personally, in doing that.