Subject Analysis Committee Reports

Annual & Midwinter Reports

  • 2017 Annual Report

    REPORT OF THE AALL REPRESENTATIVE TO THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION
    SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE (SAC)
    ANNUAL CONFERENCE, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
    JUNE 25-26, 2017

    Submitted by Lia Contursi, Columbia Law School Library.

    Highlights from:

    1. Policy and Standards Divisions of LC (PSD) (Janis Young)
    2. FAST Report (Diane Vizine-Goetz)
    3. SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation (Lia Contursi)

    The special program presentation was:

    Subjects in Authority Records: Looking Towards a Linked Data Future, by Robert L. Maxwell and Adam L. Schiff. [see below for summary]

    1. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS POLICY AND STANDARDS DIVISION (PSD)

    In March 2017 the Law Section of the Library of Congress started to host a regional quarterly Law Cataloging Forum. Typically members of Georgetown University Law Library, George Washington University Law Library and American University Law Library as well as representatives of LC Policy and Standard Division attend the meeting. However the May Forum was organized to coincide with the PCC BIBCO/OpCo meeting, to allow the participation of other law catalogers from outside Washington D.C. At the Forum issues and ideas on law cataloging are discussed. At the May meeting it emerged that there is a need to encourage more proposals for new classifications, new subject headings and new genre form terms for emerging contemporary topics.

    Cataloger’s Desktop (CD) is working on a special project called Classification Web Integration which will allow subscribers of CD and ClassWeb to search both resources concurrently. This new feature will be available in late June or early July.

    LC has accomplished the work of updating the Bulgarian jurisdictions called oblast (province) and okrug (district). Their use has alternated during the period between 1987 and 1999. The application of these two headings is now accurately described in their respective authority records.

    The online training for Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) has advanced substantially since last year. The program now includes six units incorporating 51 separate modules. The training modules are available in Catalogers Learning Workshop (CLW).

    The Subject Headings Manual now includes the new instruction sheet H 204 – Evaluating Subject Proposals. This document helps understanding the process followed by the specialists at PSD when they review new proposals. The instructions will help catalogers to be better prepared when they decide to submit a new heading. H 204 can be downloaded from the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate of the Library of Congress (ABA) website: H204(PDF).

    Among the newest LCSHs added to the authorities’ database there is a noteworthy law heading: Civil rights of corporations. This heading is cross-referenced with Corporate law.

    The Library of Congress ABA has not yet decided when it will start to implement the general, religion, and literature genre form terms, nor has made a decision on the implementation of the Demographic Group Terms. However these vocabularies are freely available and can be fully used by other libraries, as many catalogers are already doing.

    The Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT) Manual is still in its draft form and is available in the ABA LCDGT web page.

    2. FAST/OCLC

    OCLC is working on a project that will allow users to propose new personal name headings as well as new topical headings as FAST. When the method for the submission of new proposals will be ready, it will be announced on FASTVOC-list. This is the discussion list managed by OCLC Research which focuses on all issues related to the application of FAST. Here is the link to subscribe/unsubscribe:
    http://listserv.oclclists.org/scripts/wa.exe?A0=FACETVOC-L.

    3. SAC SUBCOMMITTEE GENRE/FORM IMPLEMENTATION (SAC GFIS)

    This past winter, two working groups have labored on two projects.

    The Working Group (WG) on Genre/Form of Videogames selected 75 terms from an initial list of hundreds. The WG proceeded to create authority records for 55 of the 75 terms. By ALA Midwinter 2018 the WG plans to add scope notes to all authority records. Conceivably the specialists at PSD will not be ready to incorporate the production of this new vocabulary to their current list of priorities in the near future. However the WG on Genre/Form of Videogames has been offered the option to consider adding the vocabulary to the Open Data Registry under the sponsorship of Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC). In that case the G/F of Videogames would be published under the patronage of the Subject Analysis Committee (SAC) and the sponsorship of OLAC. The source code that would be used in bibliographic records would then be $2 olac. There might still be a chance that PSD will make a favorable decision by the time ALA Midwinter 2018 opens.

    Following up on the comments and recommendations received at the Midwinter Meeting, the WG on the white paper A Brave New World : Towards Full Implementation of Library of Congress Faceted Vocabularies has incorporated new edits to the essay. The WG asked and obtained the approval of SAC. The Chair of the editorial board is now planning to submit the document to the Library of Congress, to the Program of Cooperative Cataloging and to OCLC for their endorsement. After receiving the approval from these institutions, SAC GFIS will distribute the document widely to the entire library community, in order to obtain more feedback of cataloging colleagues from all types of libraries.

    The purpose of the essay is to point out all the issues that relate to the hindrances of full implementations of all three new faceted controlled vocabularies: LC Genre/Form Terms (LCGFT), LC Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT), and LC Medium of Performance Terms (LCMPT). The document advocates for the development of a training plan. Furthermore the essay identifies possible solutions for a full scale application of all these faceted vocabularies.

    SAC GFIS feels that the conclusion of the white paper also ends the mission of the subcommittee. However after long discussions, SAC GFIS identified the need to articulate best practices and training for the future full scale implementation of the three LC non-topical faceted vocabularies. GFIS asked SAC the permission to transform itself into a new subcommittee working on best practices and training. Hopefully current members will remain, thus continuing their contribution with the considerable experience gained so far, and expectedly new members will join. GFIS will submit a proposal to SAC for the support of a new subgroup with focus on best practice of LC Faceted Vocabularies.

    OTHER NEWS

    Illegal aliens.
    A decision on the proposed changes has not been made yet. The issue is now being discussed by the executive management at the Library of Congress.

    IFLA 2017 Subject Analysis and Access Standing Committee (SA&A) Meetings and Open Programs
    The IFLA 2017 will be held in Wroclaw, Poland from August 19-25. The full program can be downloaded at: http://2017.ifla.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2017/01/ifla-wlic-programme-2017.pdf

    MAXWELL/SCHIFF PRESENTATION

    Subjects in Authority Records: Looking Towards a Linked Data Future, by Robert L. Maxwell and Adam L. Schiff.

    The excellent presentation of Maxwell and Schiff very skillfully demonstrated new and enhanced ways to create authority records. The presenters showed alternative ways to create more effective authority records, often expertly visionary, sometimes arguably problematic.

    They argued that RDA and FRBR allow catalogers to think at entity-relationship structures even in the traditional environment of current databases in MARC format. Not exclusively bibliographic records can be linked among themselves. We continue to create authority records as traditional static description of access points. However authorities can also describe entities and can be used to link much enhanced bibliographic records. In fact with the use of relationship designators in authorities, and with the use of faceted vocabularies such as LCDGT, we could enrich our NARs and link them to other appropriate entities, including related works.

    The presenters gave ample demonstrations of enriched authorities, and demonstrated how they can better connect bibliographic descriptions. They showed a number of records before and after enhancements. The reaction of the audience was enthusiastic, but some pointed out a few less convincing details that should be discussed and resolved if the library community will move forward to adopt the suggested enrichment process. For example Maxwell and Schiff suggested to enhance the authority for Card, Orson Scott. $t Ender’s game with mention of the literary awards obtained for the title. These would be automatically linked to any bibliographic record describing the numerous editions of the same title. However there are cases where a title would cause problems, such as Gone With The Wind (movie) which won many Academy Awards. However the novel does not need the link to those awards, and such connection would be misleading. More brainstorming would be necessary to resolve all the issues generated by unintended links among entities, but the presentation proposed a very stimulating and innovative way of cataloging and was a great success.

  • 2017 Midwinter Report

    ALA/ALCTS/CAMMS SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE
    ANNUAL CONFERENCE – ATLANTA, GEORGIA, JANUARY 2017

    Report Submitted by Lia Contursi.

    Program presentation: Music & Law Genre/Form: Implementation, Practice, and Experience (Lia Contursi, Columbia Law School and Casey Mullin, Western Washington University)

    POLICY AND STANDARDS DIVISION (PSD)

    The Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) have been updated 4 times in 2016 with a total of 43 changed or deleted instructions. Summaries of updates are posted on the Library of Congress ABA web site in a more timely fashion than in the RDA Toolkit. History of all the changes, older and most recent, can be found at the following address: http://www.loc.gov/aba/rda/lcps_access.html.

    [One of the latest and notable changes was made with the August 2016 release: LC-PCC PS 9.16.1.3 (Recording Professions or Occupations.) Prior to the August release of the RDA Toolkit, all the examples functioning as guidelines for addition of professional term to an access point showed only terms drawn from a controlled vocabulary, typically from LCSH. Those MARC examples seemed to imply that while a term from a controlled vocabulary was only “preferred”, the use of a noncontrolled term was definitely discouraged. However a new example has been added:

    100 1#$a Thompson, Simon $c (Professor)
    374 ##$a College teachers $2 lcsh
    374 ##$a University and college faculty members $2 lcdgt

    Note that “Professors” is a variant entry of LCSH College teachers. This means that law catalogers can now feel absolutely free to use “Law professor” and not Law teacher, if they need to disambiguate a personal name access point with a professional term. Law professors is a variant of LCSH Law teachers]

    ClassWeb and Cataloger’s Desktop. The Library of Congress is developing a new design for ClassWeb and Cataloger’s Desktop. The two services will be harmonized to facilitate searches. Libraries that subscribe to both services will have a “one-stop searching box” that will allow a simultaneous retrieval of relevant content from both tools. No more details were offered but we should expect the appearance of such newly harmonized searches sometimes this year.

    ALA Romanization. The Library of Congress Staff supports the continuing research on the improvement of a Japanese ALA-LC Romanization Table. The Table is posted on the web site of the Library of Congress ABA, but can also be accessed directly from Cataloger’s Desktop.

    Illegal aliens. The LCSH Illegal aliens has been discussed extensively at the Library of Congress and research has been done on alternative headings that are based on feedback received last year from the wide survey launched by LC. An announcement on the final solution is expected very soon. As of February 8, 2017, no announcement has been made.

    LCSH Online Training. The work on online training of LCSH continues. This is a large project developed by PSD and Simmons College. While the training is being developed for new personnel of the Library of Congress, it is also being made available for the larger library community. The modules already available so far are:

    • Unit 1. Foundations;
    • Unit 2. Structure;
    • Unit 3. Subject Headings Manual;
    • Unit 4. Main headings: the details.

    The instructors are Janis L. Young, a senior cataloging policy specialist in the Policy and Standards Division of the Library of Congress, and Daniel N. Joudrey, an associate professor at the School of Library and Information Science at Simmons College in Boston. Modules 1-4 can be accessed at the following address: http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/lcsh/.

    Class KIA-KIX. Subclass KIL for the Law of Indigenous People of Mexico is now formally approved and can be implemented. Proposals for additions or changes can be made through the regular system in ClassWeb.

    Art Genre/Form Terms. PSD is completing the review and approval of the Art GFT that have been compiled by the Art Libraries Society of North America. The corpus of the vocabulary includes approximately 100 terms. It is expected to be approved officially by ALA Annual this year.

    Demographic Group Terms. PSD has extended the period of Phase 3, which consists of submitting proposals for new LCDGT terms, but exclusively for new cataloging needs, not for retrospective application. Guidelines to make proposals are incorporated in the Demographic Group Terms Manual, in particular the document L435 gives general instructions on how to prepare a proposal for demographic terms. The LCDGT Manual can be accessed at the following address: http://www.loc.gov/aba/publications/FreeLCDGT/freelcdgt.html. The vocabulary of LCDGT will be incorporated into Cataloger’s Desktop (CD) in the near future but as of February 8, 2017 it is not yet published directly in CD. However LCDGT is integrated in ClassWeb.

    MUSIC LIBRARY ASSOCIATION (MLA)

    An MLA Working Group on retrospective application is testing the use of a program developed by Gary Strawn of Northwestern University. The program is able to derive LC Medium of Performance Terms from the music/genre/form /medium headings traditionally placed in the 650 field. The Group is also working on a similar program to derive non-medium facets from LC subject headings, including demographic group categories, as well as chronological and geographical facets.

    INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF LIBRARY ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS (IFLA)

    At the IFLA Annual Conference 2016 held in Columbus, Oio the Classification and Indexing Section announced the approval of a proposal for a name change. The section is now called Subject Analysis and Access Section (SA&A). Jointly with the Cataloguing Section, SA&A is participating in a new working group that is preparing a revision of the Guidelines for authority records and references, published in 2001, and the revision of Guidelines for subject authority and reference entries, published in 1993. The SA&A has two other working groups: Subject Access in the New Environment, chaired by Maja Zumer, and the Genre/Form Working Group, chaired by George Prager and Ricardo Santos. The group is also a joint group of SA&A and the Cataloguing Sections. It is developing a survey on the implementation of genre/form terms that will be distributed among national libraries.

    The next IFLA 2017 Annual Conference will be held in Wroclaw, Poland from August 19-25, 2017. The call for papers is posted at the following address: http://2017.ifla.org/programme/calls-for-papers.

    Please note the session sponsored by the Law Libraries Section and the Subject Analysis and Access Section: http://2017.ifla.org/cfp-calls/law-libraries-section-joint-with-subject-analysis-and-accesssections.

    SA&A will also be jointly sponsoring a program with the Bibliography Section, entitled: “Challenging society and naming identity: Subject access and bibliography in a multicultural world” (http://2017.ifla.org/cfp-calls/bibliography-joint-with-subject-analysis-and-access).

    SAC SUBCOMMITTEE ON GENRE/FORM IMPLEMENTATION

    The SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation submitted two proposals to the MARC Advisory Committee (MAC), and started 2 new projects since the Annual Conference in June 2016.

    MARC Proposal no. 2017-02 recommends to add $i$4 and $3 to the MARC field 370 (Associated place) in bibliographic as well as in authority MARC records. The purpose of this proposal is to relate more accurately the connection between a geographic place and the resource described in the MARC record. The proposal was discussed at the ALA Midwinter meeting of MAC and was endorsed for consideration and final approval by the MARC Steering Group, with the provision of some clarifying rephrasing.

    MARC Proposal no. 2017-03 recommends to add $i$4 to the MARC field 386 (Creator/Contributor Characteristics) in bibliographic as well as in authority MARC records. The purpose of this proposal is to fully describe the relationship between the creator or contributor attributes and the resource being described in the MARC record. This proposal was also discussed at the Midwinter meeting of MAC, and was endorsed for consideration and final approval by the MARC Steering Group, with the provision of some clarifying rephrasing.

    After ALA Annual 2016 Rosemary Groenwald submitted a proposal to PSD recommending incorporating a thesaurus of video games genre/form terms into the corpus of the Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms (LCGFT). The SAC Subcommittee then asked Rosemary to be the Chair of the Video Games GFT Working Group (Video Games WK). Composed of 8 members, the Video Games WK spent the past three months working intensely on a list of terms, using authoritative web sites on video games sources. The group then selected a final list of 150 terms. Before ALA Midwinter 2017, this January, the Video Games Chair received news from PSD that they have approved to incorporate Video Games GFT into the larger LCGFT vocabulary, with the caveat that this project may take a long time before its official start. Meanwhile the Online Audiovisual Catalogers group (OLAC) has expressed interest in sponsoring the publication of a Video Games GFT thesaurus. The SAC Subcommittee Video Games WK must now make a choice, though the preference is that the video games genre terms be incorporated in the LCGFT vocabulary. While pondering the two options the Video Games WK will proceed to work on the development of authority records for all the 150 terms selected for the final list.

    At ALA Annual 2016 the SAC Subcommittee asked Casey Mullin to chair a working group on Full Implementation of the Library of Congress Faceted Vocabularies. During the fall, Casey formed a Working Group on Full Implementation (WGFI) with six members, and wrote a charge for the group, outlining the development of the project.

    The WGFI has produced a comprehensive white paper titled A Brave New (Faceted) World: Towards Full Implementation of Library of Congress Faceted Vocabularies. This essay introduces the history and the purpose of the newest vocabularies LC Genre/Form Terms (LCGFT), LC Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT), and LC Medium of Performance Terms (LCMPT). It identifies all the issues that relate to the hindrances to full implementations of all three faceted vocabularies, and advocates for the indispensable development of a training plan. Furthermore the essay identifies possible solutions for a full scale application of all these new faceted vocabularies. The white paper is virtually addressed to the Library of Congress, to the Program of Cooperative Cataloging and to OCLC and vendors of integrated library systems. It is now in its draft version and it has been submitted to SAC with the purpose of seeking initial feedback. SAC members have offered very valuable comments at the SAC Meeting held in Atlanta on January 22. The white paper will now be discussed within SAC GIFS for further analysis and adjustments. It will then be sent to external consultants, before the Group will work on the final version, which will be re-submitted to SAC for approval

  • 2016 Annual Report

    REPORT OF THE AALL REPRESENTATIVE TO THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION
    SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE (SAC)
    ANNUAL MEETING, ORLANDO, FLORIDA
    JUNE 26-27, 2016

    Submitted by Lia Contursi.

    Highlights from:

    1. Policy and Standards Divisions of LC (PSD) (Janis Young)
    2. Music Library Association (MLA) (Casey Mullin)
    3. Art Libraries, Society of North America (ARLIS/NA) (Sherman Clarke)
    4. FAST Report (Diane Vizine-Goetz)
    5. SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form (Adam Schiff)
    6. SAC Working Group on the LCSH heading “Illegal aliens” (Tina Gross)

    The special program presentation was:

    Pre-Coordinate vs Post-Coordinate Subject Access: The Pros and Cons and a Real-Life Experience, by Peter FletcherTeam Leader International and Knowledge Management Teams, Cyrillic Catalog Librarian & Metadata Specialist, UCLA Cataloging & Metadata Center and Diane BoehrHead, Cataloging & Metadata Management Section, National Library of Medicine.

    1. PSD

    In January 2016 the Library of Congress made available the manuals of the Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms (LCGFT) and the Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT). They are both in draft form. The comment period ended on May 31, 2016. [AALL proposed to change part of the instruction sheet J230 Legislation and Legislative Literature which relates to the use of the term Law commentaries. CSCAG catalogers proposed that in special cases where a law commentary contains the text of a law in its entirety and separate from the commentary, the terms Law commentaries and Statutes and codes could be used paired together in bibliographic records. PSD has not yet made any decision.]

    After Midwinter, PSD received many comments on the use of local demonyms and suggestions on how to best disambiguate them. PSD is reviewing all the responses and may make a final decision before the end of the year. The vocabulary of Demographic Group Terms is available online in PDF format for free download. However, it is also available in ClassWeb. The terms may be assigned in bibliographic as well as in authority records to indicate the contributors and the intended audience to a resource.

    The subclass for the Law of Indigenous Peoples in North America continues to expand and it is now fully functional for the range from KIA to KIK. The related KF range from KF8200 to KF8578 has also been authorized.

    2. MLA

    Since Midwinter 24 more music LCGFT have been approved and 4 more are in the Tentative List 1606. In addition, 16 terms have been added to the Medium of Performance Thesaurus (LCMPT).

    On June 3 the British Library announced that they are discontinuing the use of LCSH to express genre/form or medium of performance, for which the appropriate music LCGFT and LCMPT terms will be replaced. This is a policy that the music librarians at the MLA would like to adopt eventually.

    A project on retrospective application of music LCGFT and LCMPT is underway. Most bibliographic records are identified through some specific LCSH subdivisions and fixed fields codes. Concurrently a SAC subgroup is working on mapping records where literature, law and general LCGFT would also be appropriate. The plan is to extract OCLC identification numbers from the list of identified records and eventually to prepare a crosswalk for OCLC for retrospective application.

    3. ARLIS/NA

    ARLIS has been invited to participate in the ARTFRAME project, the effort to investigate how BIBFRAME works for cultural objects, coordinated by Melanie Wacker at Columbia University.

    The work on art genre forms continues. The working group struggled to determine the level of granularity for the thesaurus. This will be determined also by the specific disciplines and whether or not the specificity is expressed in the Art and Architecture Thesaurus or the Thesaurus for Graphic Materials. Overall, though, there is not a deep level of specificity in the current list, which contains about 120 terms so far. The working group hopes to conclude a draft by the end of the summer.

    4. FAST/OCLC

    Currently about 90 million records have been enhanced with FAST headings in Worldcat. There are two new tools in experimental phase but fully functional and available:

    • AssignFAST is a new feature to facilitate the application of FAST headings and based on the so called “autosuggest technology.” When catalogers type a word in the search box, a number of suggested headings appear in a scrolling list, together with some “see also” terms. Selecting one from the list prompts the automatic highlighting of the heading for easy copy and paste.
    • SearchFAST is a new interface operating under the same principles. It is based on a concept of seemingly intelligent semantic technology. When users type a word in the search box, the system brings up a number of possible headings, or indicates “see also” references, thus simplifying the retrieval of FAST headings. The interface shows the searching box, the list of results and some selected bibliographic records in Worldcat, all together on the same screen.

    5. SAC SUBCOMMITTEE GENRE/FORM

    The Subcommittee drafted two MARC Discussion Papers.

    370 field – Associated place in bibliographic and authority records: defining 3 new subfields
    $i (relationship information)
    $3 (materials specified)
    $4 (relationship code)

    386 field – Creator/Contributor characteristics in bibliographic and authority records defining 2 new subfields
    $i (relationship information)
    $4 (relationship code)

    These were not formally approved by the MARC Advisory Committee (MAC) even though there seemed to be a general consensus. In Orlando the MAC Committee asked the SAC Subcommittee on Genre Terms to produce a white paper by next Midwinter.

    After the revised definition of Genre/Form terms approved by LC in December 2015, 13 more literature LCGFT have been proposed but LC has not made any decision yet.

    A subgroup of 4 people (including our own law cataloging colleague Yael Mandelstam) have worked on strategies and techniques for retrospective assignment of literature, music and general LCGFT to bibliographic records. The group looked into form subdivisions and fixed fields and provided mapping for codes to LCGFT. A master spreadsheet is publicly available in ALA Connect.

    The future of the SAC Subcommittee on Genre Terms was discussed. The Subcommittee’s work on the compilation of Literature terms and General terms has been completed but the working group would like to continue to work on related projects, for example:

    a. Retrospective application of LCGFT
    b. Compilation of a new LCGFT for videogames

    It was also noted that with all the new controlled vocabularies, such as the Demographic Group Terms, and the potential to establish a thesaurus of terms for the relationship information that would be used in $i for 370 and 386 fields, the work of a subgroup could continue, possibly with new members specialized in more disciplines. As we are moving into a world of Linked Data even the definition of Subject Heading seems restrictive. There are areas such as the LCDGT and its Demonyms where the lines between subject analysis and description of relationships overlap or become more indistinct. This conversation will be revisited at the next Midwinter.

    6. SAC WORKING GROUP ON THE LCSH HEADING “ILLEGAL ALIENS”

    On March 22, 2016 LC announced that two new SHs Unauthorized immigration + Noncitizens would replace the deprecated Illegal aliens. However, the SAC Working Group on the LCSH “Illegal aliens” that was formed at Midwinter 2016 decided to continue the study on the feasibility of the subject heading initially proposed: Undocumented immigrants. Analysis on sample records in a small “study” pointed to the fact that Illegal aliens is a much broader term than Undocumented immigrants, because Illegal aliens comprises also the noncitizens who are not immigrants. Similarly to the term Undocumented immigrants, also Unauthorized immigration + Noncitizens cannot automatically substitute Illegal aliens because not all illegal aliens are immigrants: some could be more appropriately described with narrower LCSH such as Foreign workers; Refugees; Visitors, Foreign; Admission of non-immigrants, etc.

    The current and common use of the phrase “undocumented immigrants” seems to refer exclusively to foreign born people who reside in a country without authorization, thus justifying the term as a viable option as subject heading, corroborated by literary warrant. The proposal of the working group is that Illegal aliens be replaced by Undocumented immigrants indicating in the scope note that the heading refers to foreign-born persons residing in a country without documentation of required authorization. However, to complicate the discussion is the current controversy between Congress and the LC, which started last April with the introduction of a bill to retain the LCSH Illegal aliens, voted favorably by the House Appropriations Committee.

    With the political involvement of Congress, the issue has become highly sensitive. LC is accepting comments from the library community until July 20. The link to an online survey can be found at the top of Tentative List 1606a: https://classificationweb.net/tentative-subjects/1606a.html

    SAC discussed the feasibility of the proposed heading Undocumented immigrants. Some of the voting members were in favor others had some objections. It was decided that the proposal was right in principle but the working group on Illegal aliens was asked to make some changes to the language of the report. The corrected proposal will be sent to SAC by mid-July. Then SAC will give final approval and will send recommendations to ALA. ALA intends to write an official statement on the matter of the replacement of the LCSH Illegal aliens.

    OTHER NEWS

    The Cataloging in Publication (CIP) and Dewey sections of the Library of Congress merged their operations effective February 7, 2016. This merger promotes greater collaboration between the CIP and Dewey Program. Caroline Saccucci became the CIP and Dewey Program Manager and Section Head.

    In January the CIP Program discontinued the requirement for libraries to join BIBCO in order to be eligible for the ECIP Cataloging Partnership Program. Libraries now need only to be NACO members to join the program.

    Before the official opening of the 2016 IFLA Conference, which will be held in Columbus Ohio, August 13-19, 2016, the IFLA Section of Classification and Indexing will offer a free Satellite Conference hosted at the State Library of Ohio in Columbus, on August 11-12. The title of this special conference is Subject Access: Unlimited Opportunities. The conference will stimulate a discussion on best practices and issues related to classification and indexing. The program chair is Sandy Roe, current member of the Standing Committee of the Classification and Indexing Section of IFLA. Among the many presenters there will be Janis Young and Diane Vizine-Goetz.

    Finally a note on the presentation: Pre-Coordinate vs Post-Coordinate Subject Access: The Pros and Cons and a Real-Life Experience.

    Peter Fletcher discussed all the pros and cons of using Pre-coordinated strings vs. post-coordinated headings.

    Pre-coordinate

    positives: Legacy, headings provide context
    negatives: Inconsistent structure, less machine-actionable, not optimal for linked data.

    Post-coordinate

    positives: Consistent structure, context provided by operators/syntax, more machine-actionable, better for linked data
    negatives: Not a broadly established system

    In 2005 the National Library of Medicine (NLM) decided to “unstring” the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This practice allows the harmonization with the searching techniques to which users of medical literature are more acquainted, considering that post-coordinate subjects are normally applied to journal databases such as Medline and PubMed. The faceted headings allow other libraries to easily download records from the NLM without spending time in “unstringing.” In addition, post-coordinate facets allow easier authority control. However, some of the shortcomings are:

    loss of effectiveness in Boolean searches,
    loss of context among the parts of the headings,
    lack of precision in retrieval of keyword searches.

    USEFUL LINKS

  • 2016 Midwinter Report

    REPORT FROM THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION CAMMS
    SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE (SAC)
    MIDWINTER MEETING, BOSTON, JANUARY 2016

    Submitted by Lia Contursi, Columbia Law School

    PRESENTATION ON FRBR-LIBRARY REFERENCE MODEL (KATHY GLENNAN)

    Kathy Glennan (ALA representative to the RDA Steering Committee) gave a presentation about the changes to the Governance of the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA which has been renamed as RDA Steering Committee (RSC). The changes will occur within a time frame of three years. By 2019 the RDA Board will have one representative for each international region, and each region will develop its own structure. The North American Region will comprise Canada, United States (ALA and LC). If they adopt RDA the following countries will also be included: Bermuda, Greenland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon. The North American Region will have only one representative in the hierarchical structure of RSC.

    Kathy Glennon gave a separate presentation on FRBR-Library Reference Model (FRBR-LRM) (http://connect.ala.org/files/FRBR-Library%20Reference%20Model-%20to%20SAC.pptx). She explained that FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records), FRAD (Functional Requirements for Authority Data)and FRSAD (Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data) all of which are conceptual entity-relationship models have been reviewed by IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) and have been consolidated in one unified model called FRBR-LRM which will be ready for worldwide release by the end of 2016.

    The new model proposes fundamental changes in the entity-relationship framework as we know it. The changes will shift the focus on library operation tasks that are currently included in FRAD, to an integrated framework defined exclusively by Users’ Tasks. The new model’s tasks will be: Find, Identify, Select, Obtain and Explore. The new model will retain the 3 original divisions of Groups of Entities. Group 1 remains unchanged: Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item. However fundamental changes will be made to Group 2 and Group 3:

    Current entities of Group2:

    Person
    Corporate body

    Proposed changes to entities of Group 2:

    AGENT (superclass subdivided in):
    1. Collective Agent (Families & Corporate Bodies)
    2. Person

    Current entities of Group 3 (the subjects of works):

    Concept
    Object
    Event
    Place

    Proposed changes to entities of Group 3:

    Place
    Time-span

    Such conceptual changes will redefine the hierarchies between entities and will influence their reciprocal relationships. The newly redefined entities Place and Time-span will have a significant impact on RDA and will also cause the disappearance in the Toolkit of Chapters 13, 14, 15 and 33- 36 which now function as placeholders for the deprecated entities Concept, Object and Event. Potentially the developments of the new FRBR-LRM model will have an impact on the application of Subjects, Genres and Demographic Group Terms.

    CC:DA plans to establish a Task Force to review the new model and to prepare a response to ALA. The Subject Analysis Committee is not taking any action for now.

    PRESENTATION ON LC DEMOGRAPHIC GROUP TERMS T BY JANIS YOUNG, POLICY AND STANDARD DIVISION, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

    Janis Young (Liaison of the Library of Congress to SAC) gave a very comprehensive presentation on LC Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT): By Who and For Whom? LC Demographic Group Terms(http://connect.ala.org/files/By%20Who%20and%20For%20Whom.pptx).

    The Library of Congress Policy and Standard Division (PSD) has approved 800 terms divided in 11 different categories: Age, Educational Level, Ethnic/Cultural, Gender, Language, Medical/Psychological/Disability, National/Regional, Occupation/Field of Activity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, Social.

    The project is now in Phase 3 and PSD has started to accept proposals from SACO Members through the official proposal system, and from Non-SACO Members through the use of a Survey Monkey that can be found at the following address: http://www.surveymonkey.com/r/LCDGTproposals. Only new proposals will be accepted. Proposals that are retrospective in nature will not be considered.

    Janis Young’s slides clearly explained the purpose and the application of the LCDGT which indicate creators and contributors as well as the intended audiences to a resource. She described the dilemma PSD is currently facing when confronted with the disambiguation of local demonyms which are terms that belong to the National/Regional category. Initially PSD had established terms that identify residents or natives of Continents, Supra-national Regions, Countries, Sub-national Regions and First-level Administrative subdivisions. Subsequently PSD decided to include local demonyms that refer to residents of Cities and City-sections. This decision is posing a difficult challenge that needs to be resolved. In a thoughtful paper distributed last November 2015 (https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/lcdgt-demonyms.pdf), PSD has fully explained the obstacles of establishing headings for local demonyms, and has provided possible solutions. At the SAC meeting Janis Young exhorted all the library communities to send comments to that discussion paper. After ALA Midwinter our AALL Classification and Subject Cataloging Advisory Working Group (CSCAG) prepared a response to the paper on Demonyms which was sent to PSD on January 29. Please find the feedback prepared by CSCAG at the end of this report.

    REPORT OF THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON GENRE/FORM IMPLEMENTATION.

    The draft of instructions sheets for a manual of genre/form headings was sent to LC Policy and Standards Division in October 2015. In early January 2016 the Library of Congress announced the posting of the draft Genre/Form Terms Manual (http://www.loc.gov/aba/publications/FreeLCGFT/freelcgft.html). The manual includes the draft instruction sheet J230 Legislation and Legislative Histories. Members of the CSGAG Group noted that there are some discrepancies between the document J230 and the Best Practices document edited and adopted by the law catalogers at AALL. Janis Young, member of PSD and liaison to SAC, reiterated that the Manual has not been finalized and that revisions can be sent to PDS by May 31, 2016. CSCAG is currently reviewing the instruction sheet J230, and is in the process of submitting an updated version to PSD.

    DISCUSSION OF ILLEGAL ALIENS SUBJECT HEADINGS BY TINA GROSS, MEMBER OF SAC.

    Tina Gross continued the discussion on the Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) Illegal aliens. This subject heading is perceived as pejorative and offensive. Tina offered more literary evidence in order to prove the need of an appropriate alternative. She expressed her doubt that a discussion within the Subject Analysis Committee might be productive or even useful and proposed to form a Task force group. SAC gave a unanimous approval of such Task force. The group will investigate whether SAC should make recommendations to the Library of Congress to change LCSH Illegal aliens and whether the alternatives proposed so far are the best options.

    Submitted on February 8, 2016.


    FEEDBACK FROM THE LAW CATALOGERS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF LAW LIBRARIES ON DEMONYMS FOR LOCAL PLACES IN LC DEMOGRAPHIC GROUP TERMS: ANALYSIS OF THE ISSUES: A THOUGHT EXPERIMENT BY THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS POLICY AND STANDARDS DIVISION, NOVEMBER 3, 2015.

      1. Is it necessary that all demonyms, at any level of jurisdiction, be eligible for inclusion as authorized terms? Or would upward references be sufficient? Or do you disagree with the basic premise that demonyms for lower-level jurisdictions need to be included?
        In general law catalogers think that it is not necessary to create demonyms for lower level jurisdictions. However in those rare cases when it would be desirable to link a legal work to a particular audience and place, or an author to a place, this should be limited to the authority records. The principle of deriving place and type of audience from authority records can be applied to all levels of jurisdictions, but we find that the use of local demonyms is particularly challenging and should be minimized.
      2. If you consider it necessary to allow all demonyms to be authorized terms, is it necessary to disambiguate among them (e.g., separate terms for Parisians from Paris, France, and Paris, Texas)?
        If the project of establishing local demonyms will move forward, we believe that all demonyms will need to be separately disambiguated.
      3. Would post-coordination in bibliographic records and authority records for works and expressions be a workable solution? That is, local place names would not be disambiguated, and would be assigned in conjunction with a demonym for the ADM1-level jurisdiction or country, as appropriate.
        The adoption of a post-coordination method in bibliographic and authority records could be effective for the most common demonyms but it may lead to great confusion and possible errors for the less known ones.
      4. How closely should parenthetical qualifiers for demonyms adhere to the authorized NAF form of place name? Are any of the ideas for parenthetical qualifiers presented in the body of the paper acceptable?
        The parenthetical qualifiers should not adhere to the form of place name in NAF, especially when considering that geographic abbreviations may disappear in the future and that the relationships between smaller and larger places may change.
      5. If you think that the [place] residents terms for local places should be disambiguated, do you prefer a parenthetical qualifier (e.g., Fairfax County residents (Fairfax County, Virginia)), or an internal qualifier (Fairfax County, Virginia, residents)?
        The use of an internal qualifier to disambiguate local places is more desirable.5[bis] Should qualifiers for places in the United States, Canada, and Australia include the name of the country?
        The qualifiers of places within the U.S., Canada and Australia do not need to include the country, even though this may reveal a partiality of the Anglophone community.
      6. Should conflict be anticipated (i.e., demonyms for all places at the ADM1 level and below would be qualified when first proposed), or should conflict be limited to LCDGT (existing terms would be qualified only as necessary when proposals for new terms create conflict situations in LCDGT)?
        Conflicts should definitely be anticipated.
      7. If you think conflict should be limited to LCDGT, what are your thoughts on provision of context for the term? That is, how would we make it clear that Brandenburgers refers to residents of the state and not the city, or vice versa?
        Conflicts should always be anticipated. Applying the correct qualifier or set of hierarchical qualifiers would provide context thus clarifying what a particular demonym represents. Context and clarity are essential in equal measure for the users who execute the search and for the catalogers who need to apply the demonyms correctly.

    While the use of demonyms may be very useful for the catalogers of most disciplines in the humanities, establishing local demonyms presents a real challenge and may not be cost-effective. However if we must use them, perhaps choosing the form [Place] resident would be the most efficient solution even though it is not the most elegant.

  • 2015 Annual Report

    REPORT OF THE AALL REPRESENTATIVE TO THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION FROM THE CAMMS
    SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE (SAC)
    MIDWINTER MEETING, CHICAGO, JANUARY 2015
    ANNUAL MEETING, SAN FRANCISCO, JUNE 2015

    Submitted by Lia Contursi.

    Summary of SAC activities and highlights from the reports of the Library of Congress.

    The Classification for Law of Indigenous Peoples in the Americas, aka The KIA-KIX has been released last summer, in June 2014, and now the expansion of KF8200-8578 (Federal Law related to Indians) has been added to the schedules. LC catalogers are still required to refrain from using these new classifications until the captions and references in the schedule will be checked and harmonized. The work is expected to finish in August 2015.

    Currently the classification for the law of the Indians of Mexico is under development. The schedule for the Law of Hawaii pre-1900 has been added to Classweb and it is being tested at the Law School Library at the University of Hawaii.

    Genre/Form. The Policy and Standards Division (PSD) of the Library of Congress approved a list of 175 general genre/form terms which have been included in the authority file of LCGFT. The catalogers at the Library of Congress are not yet implementing the general terms, but libraries wishing to apply these terms are advised to do so in addition to the form subdivision ($v). At this time PSD has no plan to cancel the form subdivisions or any LCSH that overlap with the general terms.

    Music Genre/Form. PSD approved 567 genre terms for music in February 2015, but about 100 more are still under discussion for approval. In April 2015 the Library of Congress started to implement them.

    Literature Genre/Form. In May 2015 PSD approved 230 literature genre terms. More terms are still pending. The Library of Congress is not yet assigning the literature terms.

    Religion Genre/Form. The tentative list proposed by the Religion Project Group is under revision and it is expected to be approved in September 2015.

    SAC GFIS Working Group on the Definition and Scope of Genre/Form for LCGFT. The WG prepared a proposal to review the current definition of genre and form, which are perceived as inconsistent and contradictory. A new definition able to expand the current restrictive semantics of genres and forms will give a more meaningful guidance to the catalogers and a more appropriate understanding of the application of the genres in general. PSD is reviewing the proposal.

    Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT). The Demographic Group is a list of terms describing the creators of a resource, their contributors or the intended audience of a work. Such terms will be coded in the MARC fields 385 for intended audience, and 386 for the characteristics of the creators and contributors, and these fields can be used in bibliographic records as well as in authority records. The tentative list developed by the PSD was made available for public comments in May 2015. The intent of PSD was to make public the structure of this particular vocabulary. The tentative list will now go through a second phase during which the vocabulary will be further developed and enhanced with scope notes. PSD plans to finish the project by the end of the year. After the Demographic Group Terms will be finalized and approved, proposals for new terms will be permitted.

    LCDGT for Indian Tribes. The PSD asked the SAC Working Group on LCDGT to start a project and assist with the compilation of a list of endonyms for Indian tribes. PSD and the Group are acutely aware of the necessity of using the proper language because many current demonyms, can be perceived as pejorative. The reference sources suggested by PSD are works such as World Book Encyclopedia and Encyclopedia Americana, the Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America or then Handbook of North American Indians.

    FAST Headings. The FAST headings have been routinely excluded from FAST enrichment of new records for a period of at least six months. However at the ALA Annual in June, it was announced that the moratorium period has been reduced to one month only.

    MAPFAST is an experiment currently underway at OCLC where a Google map is used to provide a map based access to bibliographic records by way of searching FAST headings. Link to: http://experimental.worldcat.org/mapfast/

    SAC-CC:DA Activities. The Relationship Designators for Subjects have been moved to Appendix M of RDA.

    The CC:DA Task Force on Relationship Designators in RDA completed a proposal to make revisions and expand the list of relationships between Persons, Families and Corporate Bodies (Appendix K). Among many new terms proposed for this list, there are the Relationship Designators for Jurisdictions.

    • Capital: A jurisdiction that is the official seat of the related government of the state, territory, nation, etc.
    • County seat: A jurisdiction that is the administrative center or seat of government of the related county
    • First-order administrative division: A primary administrative division of the related country, such as a state in Australia or the United States, or a province in Canada or Indonesia
    • First-order administrative division of: A country in which the related primary administrative division, such as a state in Australia or the United States, or a province in Canada or Indonesia, is located.

    Such designators for relationships between jurisdictions are considered necessary and their addition to Appendix K was proposed in an earlier draft of the document. However, it was thought likely that the JSC would prefer to class the RD for Jurisdiction with the Appendix L for places, which is currently empty.

    LCSH “Illegal aliens” heading revision – discussion. In 2014 a group of students and librarins at Darthmouth proposed the replacement of LCSH Illegal aliens with Undocumented immigrants. The proposal was rejected but the discussion will continue at ALA Midwinter 2016.

  • 2014 Annual Report

    ANNUAL REPORT OF
    AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF LAW LIBRARIES LIAISON TO
    SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE
    2013-2014

    Submitted by Suzanne Graham

    Genre/Form Headings: SAC continues to work through the creation of genre/form terms with constituent groups. Lists of music, religion, and literature terms are currently in process with drafts anticipated early next year.

    Yael Mandelstam chairs the subgroup compiling and organizing general genre/form terms, those with overarching or non-specific fields. It has compiled a preliminary list of general genre/form terms. Approved terms might be available for use this fall.

    The law community completed its initial list of terms in 2011, but additional terms and modifications are encouraged. These may be submitted through the SACO Law Funnel or directly to Library of Congress via Minaret by SACO members.

    The Genre/Form Implementation subcommittee of SAC hopes to compile a best practices document similar to the Subject Cataloging Manual (SCM) to assist in genre/form assignment.

    LCMPT: In February, the Library of Congress released the LC Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music (LCMPT)-a project pursued cooperatively by SAC and the Music Library Association. This initial list has over 800 terms. MLA issued best practices guidance on using the terms in April.

    751: SAC had proposed using 751 field in bibliographic records to store the place/origin characteristics of genre/form terms that are being moved from 650s (which could be subdivided geographically) to 655s (which cannot). However, MAC has approved the 370 field for both bibliographic and authority records for this purpose.

    RDA Implementation: The RDA Implementation subcommittee reworked and resubmitted a draft addressing subject analysis in RDA with specific language for the relevant chapters (particularly chapter 23). The committee forwarded the proposal to Kathy Glennan, ALA representative to RDA Joint Steering Committee, for consideration at the Steering Committee’s November 2014 meeting.

    OCLC FAST: OCLC continues to mass produce FAST headings in records based on LCSH. OCLC does not expect libraries to update FAST headings if they become out-of-synch with current LCSH changes (and incorrect). OCLC is doing ongoing maintenance of these terms, but when we find errors we may remove the FAST field’s subfield o to push these records back into the queue.

    Software headings: Software products belong in the name authority file, not in subject headings. Subclasses KIA-KIK, Law of Indigenous Peoples in North America, were adopted into ClassWeb on June 2, but these numbers are still subject to change without notice in monthly lists. LC will make an announcement when KIA-KIK and KF8200+ have been approved for use.

    ClassWeb Interface: LC will release a new look and feel for ClassWeb on early fall.

    Geographic Heading Changes: Malaysia is no longer one of the special federations that require only city/country subdivisions (without intermediary states) in name authority file and in geographic subdivisions. “Cabo Verde” replaces “Cape Verde,” and South Australia is now represented as “S.A.”

    385/386: Janis Young, Library of Congress Policy Standards Division, continues to make progress outlining the creation of a new controlled vocabulary for demographic terms to be used in the 385 and 386 fields (Library of Congress Demographic Group Term and Code List, $2 lcdgt). SAC still supports the creation of this vocabulary and will assist with the creation of the initial list if solicited.

    “Library of Congress Medium of Performance Thesaurus for Music (LCMPT)” presentation by Hermine Vermeij, Casey Mullin, Nancy Lorimer, and Janis Young: Speakers provided a quick overview of the new performance thesaurus with a frank exchange of the challenges and fine granularity that music catalogers routinely engage in. Interesting questions raised about expanding the scope of this thesaurus beyond music to include other medium of performance (dance, performance art, etc.).

  • 2013 Annual Report

    REPORT OF THE AALL REPRESENTATIVE TO THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION
    ASSOCIATION FOR LIBRARY COLLECTION AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
    CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION SECTION
    SUBJECT ANALYSIS COMMITTEE (SAC)
    2012-2013

    Submitted by Suzanne Graham

    Genre/Form Headings: SAC continues to work through the creation of genre/form terms for constituent groups. The music and literature communities currently are compiling term lists. The law community completed its initial list of terms in 2011, but additional terms may be proposed as identified and/or needed.

    Yael Mandelstam, active member the American Association of Law Libraries, is chairing a group to identify general genre/form terms (overarching and/or non-specific).

    As part of the disambiguation of genre/form and subject, the committee submitted several proposals to the Machine-Readable Bibliographic Information Board (MARBI) to have additional fields identified and reserved, in bibliographic and authority records, to accommodate data on intended audience (385) and creator (386) demographics and on chronology (additional fields in 648 and 388) of the work. MARBI approved all of these proposals and they are now available for use and are included in the online version of MARC21 Format for Bibliographic Data and MARC21 Format for Authority Data.

    Examples

    Title: Law for the Small Businessman by a Lawyer
    385 _ _ $a Businesspeople $2 lcsh
    386 _ _ $a Lawyers $2 lcsh

    Title: New law for wives and daughters (published in 1920s)
    385 _ _ $a Married women $a Daughters $2 lcsh
    648 10 $a Nineteen twenties

    In June, the committee read and commented on a discussion paper by Janis Young, Library of Congress Policy Standards Division, justifying the need for and outlining the creation of a new controlled vocabulary for demographic terms to be used in the 385 and 386 fields (Library of Congress Demographic Group Term and Code List, $2 lcdgt). Most of the new terms will be taken from existing Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), and only in situations in which LCSH does not have an appropriate term would additional terms be created. The committee agreed that a single controlled vocabulary was essential and supported the use of LCSH. The Committee also volunteered to assist with the creation of the initial list should the PSD agree to pursue.

    RDA Implementation: The RDA Implementation subcommittee forwarded a discussion paper to the full committee recommending that the RDA Joint Steering Committee should base its guidance on subjects on Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD), not Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records (FRBR). This decision would mean that the four subject elements in FRBR would be replaced by the two FRSAD terms: Themen and Nomen. Both would be referred to as “subjects” in RDA.

    FRBR is found lacking for its overly proscriptive guidance that goes beyond subject analysis and would exclude some descriptors that our communities might choose to use.

    Additional, specific proposed points:

    • RDA will have only one subject entity. Nomen will be part of “Subject” (previously, themen)
    • Only have works will have subjects
    • Genres will have a separate treatment (and be covered in a separate chapter of RDA)
    • Proposes only three chapters on subjects: a general chapter on attributes on subjects; a general chapter on recording subjects; and a chapter on recording relationships between subjects
    • Jurisdictions would move to Chapter 11 (with Corporate Bodies)
    • JSC will need to identify core elements, but subcommittee recommends:
      • Name of subject
      • Preferred name of subject (a subtype)
      • Identifier of subject
      • Controlled access point for subject
      • Scheme (LCSH, MeSH, etc.)

    The committee will continue to discuss the paper until July 22, when it will be forwarded to the RDA Joint Steering Committee for consideration at its November 2013 meeting.

    Presentation by Eric Miller on BIBFRAME: Committee heard an explanation of BIBFRAME by Eric Miller focusing on the potential for automated subject heading proposal creation. He described in general terms how a trusted series of links creating new connections. For example, a “popular” 653 (local, non-authorized heading) could be submitted to PSD for authorization without interrupting workflow of libraries. Authentication would need to be part of the process to keep some provenance and to track errors.

  • 2012 Annual Reports

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, Dallas, January 2012
    Annual Meeting, Anaheim, June 2012

    Ellen McGrath
    emcgrath [at] buffalo.edu

    This is my first year as AALL’s Representative to the Subject Analysis Committee (SAC). Joining such a complex conversation in midstream is quite a challenge, so I want to extend my sincere thanks to Yael Mandelstam for helping me in my attempts to understand and navigate the content and logistics of the SAC meetings and the ALA conference as a whole.

    To place SAC in context hierarchically, it is formally the American Library Association (ALA), Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS), Cataloging and Metadata Management Section (CaMMS), Subject Analysis Committee. SAC has two subcommittees at present: the Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation (which I joined after Midwinter) and the Subcommittee on RDA.

    SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation

    I attended my first of this Subcommittee’s meetings at ALA Annual about a month ago. This group is very active and I look forward to increasing my knowledge of genre/form as I participate in its work. I also attended the kickoff meeting of the Working Group on Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT) Literature Terms. I do not have a literature background, but I know I will learn a great deal by observing the process employed. The Literature Working Group includes representatives from public, academic, and research libraries as well as from cataloging vendors.

    A resource document entitled Sources for Genre/Form Terms (http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/saco/documents/Genre-Form%20Reference%20Sources.pdf) was issued by the Subcommittee in February 2012. A related goal is to start drafting an LCGFT manual that can be modeled on the Subject Headings Manual (SHM) instruction pages.

    The Subcommittee prepared and presented three discussion papers to MARBI during ALA Annual in Anaheim. Through its work on the various discipline-based and general projects, the Subcommittee realized that in the process of replacing LC form subject headings with LC genre/form terms, some important aspects of the work or expression will be lost (e.g., the geographic and chronological aspects in the LCSH string “Constitutions-Pennsylvania-Early works to 1800” cannot be used with LCGFT “Constitutions,” since LC genre/form terms cannot be subdivided). These aspects or facets will need to be recorded elsewhere in bibliographic and authority records. The discussion papers’ names reflect this:

    Papers available at http://www.loc.gov/marc/marbi/list-dp.html#2012

    I was able to attend the MARBI meeting at which these papers were presented and found the discussion very interesting. All three papers were approved, so the Subcommittee will now turn them into MARBI proposals. This will be covered in the MARBI report, so I will not go into detail except for my observation of a few general, probably very obvious, themes:

    • There is a constant interplay between the various ALA groups (MARBI, CC:DA, and SAC), the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC) and with RDA itself.
    • Data must be appropriately placed and granular enough to allow access and to enable migration and crosswalks.
    • Free text vs. encoded data issues must be resolved.
    • Facets that allow end users to refine searches are critical.
    • References to linked data and semantic web implementation possibilities are frequent, thus assuring that all are looking to the future.

    The Subcommittee continued to discuss two other aspects or facets:

    1. Geographic origin of work/place of production, which also involves the concept of jurisdiction, an important aspect for law libraries. (This topic will be discussed at the TS Cataloging and Classification Roundtable on Tuesday afternoon.)
    2. Demonyms (the names for the resident of a locality or citizen of a country; for example, citizens of Canada are called Canadians). This paper was tabled rather than being pursued as a MARBI discussion paper, as it is felt there may be a linked data solution to associating Demonyms with genre/form terms.

    Since the law genre/form terms have been approved and incorporated into the LCGFT, the focus is now on encouraging catalogers to apply the terms, both on new titles and retrospectively. Yael Mandelstam will give an update on the latter in her report at the TS-SIS Cataloging and Classification Standing Committee meeting.

    The Subcommittee formed a new working group to focus on a General Terms Project. Yael Mandelstam and Bruce Tabb will co-chair the effort. The project’s outcome will be a thesaurus of general-use genre/form terms that can be incorporated into the LCGFT.

    A subgroup of the Subcommittee will begin to focus on the placement of genre/form terms in authority records for works and expressions. There was also discussion of other areas/disciplines that potentially need genre/form lists: video games, art, science, newspapers, and archival material.

    SAC Subcommittee on RDA

    This Subcommittee is charged with responding to subject-related proposals for revisions to RDA. Comments on such proposals are made by the Subcommittee and also the CC:DA. Both sets of comments are sent to the ALA representative to the JSC, John Attig, who uses them to formulate ALA’s official response. One proposal has followed this path so far. It was discussed at the November 2011 JSC meeting and this is JSC’s response:

    “It was agreed that RDA is not intended to replace any subject indexing or classification system. In order for RDA to provide comprehensive guidelines and instructions covering all types of content and media, it is necessary to include the subject relationship and those entities that may be the subject of works. Library of Congress will prepare a follow-up discussion paper on these issues, including recommendations for object, concept, and place. It was also recognized that the properties of Object, Event, Time, and Place are not limited to the subject relationship. This is an issue with the underlying FRBR model, which JSC will raise with the FRBR Review Group.” (http://www.rda-jsc.org/1111out.html)

    It was reported at Annual that the LC paper was done, but then withdrawn. It was acknowledged that there are many gray areas associated with the recording of subject aspects in authority records for expressions.

    SAC Research and Presentation Working Group

    SAC also has a Research and Presentation Working Group, which I just volunteered to join. This latter group organizes a formal presentation for the first hour of each SAC Monday meeting. These were the two presentations this year:

    • KO: Knowledge Organization presented by Karen Coyle (Midwinter)
    • It’s All About Discovery presented by Diane Vizine-Goetz (Annual)

    Library of Congress Updates

    Here are some highlights excerpted from the Midwinter and Annual reports submitted by Janis Young, the liaison to SAC from the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division (PSD). The full LC ALA reports are available at http://www.loc.gov/ala/

    General

    • The Collection Development Office (CDO) has been established and Joseph Puccio appointed Collection Development Officer on March 26, 2012.
    • There has been a complete overhaul of LC’s main web search on its website.
    • After extensive discussion and focus groups, LC has decided not to obtain a webscale discovery system at present.
    • LC’s online catalog has been redesigned using the Voyager “Tomcat” OPAC application.
    • An e-books pilot began in October 2011, with four publishers participating. Through this new initiative, LC will provide quality metadata for use by the international library community for e-books that are simultaneously published in print.

    Subject Cataloging & Classification

    Publications

    • New LCC schedule on Law of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas (Classes KIA-KIX: North America) is currently in final draft stage after comments were received through May 20, 2012. More information will be forthcoming from Jolande Goldberg in her LC Update and in Program J5 on Tuesday afternoon at 2:30.
    • Other newly released schedules are KBS (Canon Law of Eastern Churches) and KBT (Canon Law of Eastern Rite Churches in Communion with Rome), which are being applied by the Law Section.
    • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH red books) 34th edition will be available in late summer 2012.
    • Subject Headings Manual (SHM) Update No. 2 (2011) and Update No. 1 (2012) have been published.
    • New Library of Congress Classification (LCC) schedules published: D-DR, History (General) and History of Europe; KZ, Law of Nations; L, Education; S, Agriculture. New LCC schedules due by end of summer: Class B-BJ, Philosophy. Psychology and Q, Science.

    Staff Changes

    • Mark Strattner retired as chief of the Law Library’s Collections Services Office on November 3, 2011.
    • Judy Kuhagen, senior cataloging policy specialist, retired on December 31, 2011. She is now part-time secretary to the Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA.

    Law Reclass Projects: The Law Section reclassed about 800 international law titles from the K schedule to the new portions of the KZ schedule, with the assistance of Jolande Goldberg and George Prager. The Section also continued to reclass the 554,927 volumes shelved under the legacy in-house LAW system, completing 24,697 titles, representing 41,887 volumes during this year. Overall, over 59,980 titles have been reclassed though this project. The current focus is on Italy, Japan, and Russia.

    “Orphan” LCSH: PSD has begun to investigate the possibility of adding broader terms (BTs) to categories of headings that are currently “orphans” – those headings which are not hierarchically related to any others. So far, headings for periodicals and newspapers qualified by nationality, language, or ethnicity have been provided with the BTs Periodicals and Newspapers, respectively. This work will bring LCSH into closer alignment with the American National Standards Institute/National Information Standards Organization (ANSI/NISO) standard for monolingual controlled vocabularies. It will also enhance the usefulness of LCSH in the semantic web environment. SACO members should not submit change proposals about this; only PSD will work on it at present.

    072 Fields in LC Subject Authorities Experiment: PSD will begin an experiment to add subject category codes (MARC 21 tag 072) to authority records for subject headings, which will commence no earlier than August 2012. It is anticipated that the addition of this information will enhance the usability of LCSH on the semantic web; assist catalogers by allowing integrated library systems (ILSs) and resource discovery platforms to provide a list of the subdivisions that are appropriate to headings being assigned; and improve automatic heading string creation and validation in ILSs and resource discovery platforms. For the first time, subject authority records will include information that indicates into which of the 34 pattern and free-floating lists an individual heading falls. It is anticipated that computers will be able to match the data in the 072 field to the data in the 073 field (Subdivision usage) of the subdivision authority records and suggest applicable subdivisions for a heading, and even construct valid headings. This experiment is very limited in scope with only PSD subject specialists adding 072s. It was emphasized that 072s should not be added to NACO authority records or added to SACO proposals. For more detail, see http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/field_072_announcement.pdf

    RDA’s Effect on Subject Analysis: So far, PSD has identified two areas in which RDA access points could conflict with LCSH policy: family names and names of fictitious characters. Under AACR2, neither could be provided as descriptive access points; since RDA permits this practice, PSD has determined that in each case the subject and descriptive headings should coexist. The descriptive headings for family names and fictitious characters may not be used as subject headings. The analogous LCSH should be used instead.

    South Sudan: PSD undertook a project to update LCSH and LCC to reflect the existence of South Sudan as an independent country. Approximately 200 LCSH had to be revised and a new classification span, DT159.915-159.978, was approved, as were revisions to the schedule for Sudan (DT154.1-159.9). A geographic cutter for South Sudan, S643, has been established and will be added to the Classification and Shelflisting Manual G300 table.

    Military Expeditions: Military expeditions that are campaigns, battles, sieges, etc. should now be established in LCSH with MARC tag 150, while those that are not should be established in the name authority file using MARC tag 111. BISAC Terms: Book Industry Standards and Communications (BISAC) subject headings were added to ECIP (electronic cataloging in publication) records this year, at the request of ECIP publishers. These headings are extracted automatically from the ONIX data created and supplied by the publishers. The CIP Group will explore adding other specialized vocabularies as the opportunity arises.

    New LCSH of Current Interest

    • Arab Spring, 2010-
    • Egypt-History-Demonstrations, 2011-
    • Genre/form terms, Library of Congress
    • Libya-History-Civil War, 2011-
    • Sexting
    • Soldiers with disabilities
    • Syria-History-Protests, 2011-
    • Tunisia-History-Demonstrations, 2010-

    Genre/Form Terms

    Moving Images Project: Approximately 70 character- and franchise-based terms for moving images (e.g., Batman films; Star Trek television programs) were canceled on the Monthly List for February 2012. (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/character_franchise_disposition_112211.pdf) Twenty-two sport-specific terms were canceled on the Monthly List for June 2012. (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/genre_form_sports_terms_cancellation.pdf)

    Cartography Project: PSD issued the discussion paper “Proposed Treatment of Globes in the LCGFT Environment” on May 24, 2012. (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/genre_form_globes.pdf)

    Music Project: The Music Library Association (MLA) continues to partner with PSD to develop genre/form terms for music. Over 800 genre/form terms have been agreed upon and work on the development of hierarchies is underway. There is a separate, but related, project to develop medium of performance as a separate facet since that is out of scope for LCGFT, but requires a controlled vocabulary.

    Religion Project: The partnership to develop the genre/form terms for religion between the American Theological Library Association (ATLA) and PSD continues. ATLA is finishing its first draft and expects to forward it to PSD fairly soon. Literature Project: The SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation has formed a Working Group on LCGFT Literature Terms and will partner with PSD on this project. PSD has begun the process of examining LCSH for subject headings that denote literary forms and genres. Approximately 400 LCSHs that are candidates for inclusion have been identified so far.

  • 2011 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, San Diego, January 2011
    Annual Meeting, New Orleans, June 2011

    Yael Mandelstam
    Fordham Law School Library
    ymandelstam [at] law.fordham.edu

    This report marks the end of my second and final term as the AALL representative to SAC. I find it difficult to believe that six years have passed so fast! I very much enjoyed these stimulating and productive years and plan to remain active on the SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation. I wish my successor Ellen McGrath the best of luck and am looking forward to her reports.

    Following is a summary of SAC activities in 2011 and highlights from the Library of Congress ALA reports.

    Two SAC subcommittees were disbanded at ALA Annual: the SAC Subcommittee on FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology) and the SAC Faceting Task Force. Issues regarding faceting will continue to be discussed at the new Faceted Subject Access Interest Group of the ALCTS Cataloging and Classification Section (recently renamed Cataloging and Metadata Management Section).

    Preconference on Genre/Form

    SAC sponsored an ALA Annual preconference called What is it, anyway? Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials. The workshop introduced participants to the principles and application of Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT). Janis Young, the LC Genre/Form Coordinator at LC Policy and Standards Division (PSD), covered the theoretical and practical aspects of LCGFT; Beth Iseminger from Harvard University spoke about the music genre/form project at the Music Library Association (MLA); and I spoke about the development of the law genre/form terms at AALL.

    SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation

    Shortly before ALA Annual, the SAC Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation approved the recommendations of the 185/155 Working Group. The group was formed in 2010 and charged with reviewing all current LCSH form subdivisions in 185 authority records and identifying terms of general applications that could be recommended for inclusion in the LCGFT. The group’s recommendations were submitted to SAC and if approved, will be submitted to PSD.

    The subcommittee has also been working on possible treatments of various “facets” or “aspects” associated with genre/form terms (since subdivisions are not allowed in LCGFT). Facets include class of creator and intended audience (e.g., gender, occupation, age group, ethnicity, nationality) as well as place, language, religious denomination, etc. Each member of the subcommittee prepared a report on one or more of these aspects, and the reports and potential recommendations were discussed at ALA Annual. The subcommittee will continue its discussions electronically and hopes to submit its recommendations to SAC by ALA Midwinter.

    SAC Subcommittee on RDA

    This new subcommittee was formed at ALA Midwinter to address subject-related issues in RDA. The Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC) is moving forward with the subject-related chapters of RDA and it was important to set in place a mechanism for ALA to respond to JSC proposals and papers, since subject analysis issues are not under the purview of the Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA), and SAC is not formally charged to respond to the JSC. To resolve this issue ALCTS created the new position of a SAC liaison to CC:DA (who also acts as chair of the SAC Subcommittee on RDA). SAC will be the decision-making body for formulating the ALA responses, and the decisions will be communicated to CC:DA.

    SAC and CC:DA members and liaison had a joint meeting at ALA Annual. John Attig, the ALA representative to JSC, gave a presentation about subject entities and relationships in RDA, and Gordon Dunsire spoke about the treatment of subject in each of the Functional Requirements models: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) and Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD). Following the presentations was a brief discussion of the LC discussion paper on the “placeholder” chapters in RDA for Group 3 entities (Concept, Object, Event, and Place) and “subject”.

    Highlights from reports submitted by Janis Young, the liaison from the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division.

    The full LC at ALA report is available at http://www.loc.gov/ala

    SUBJECT CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION

    • Publications. New Editions of LC Classification Schedules: E-F (History, America), M (Music and Books on Music), N (Fine Arts), PN (Literature, General), T (Technology), K Tables, and P-PZ Table. In July a new print edition of D-DR (History, General) and History of Europe will be published, as well as a new edition of JZ and KZ: Historical Notes and Introduction to Application. The 33rd edition of LCSH will also be available in July.
    • Classification Web. A number of enhancements to Classification Web were being tested at the end of 2010. They included the addition of personal names from the LC/NACO authority file; expansion of the correlations feature to provide correlations between the National Library of Medicine classification and LCC; a new design; improved navigation tools; and an updated help file.
    • Staffing Change. Paul Weiss, the cataloging policy specialist who was responsible for subject headings and classification in the social sciences, law, and philosophy, retired in February after 37 years of service to the Library of Congress. There are now three subject specialists in PSD: Libby Dechman, Gerry Ostrove, and Janis Young. Gerry is responsible for music, and Libby and Janis handle all of the other subjects with the assistance of Tom Yee, the assistant division chief.
    • New Subject Heading Proposal System. PSD will implement a new system for creating online subject proposals no earlier than July 18, 2011. This new system is similar to the classification proposal system and will uses the same login and password currently used for classification proposals. It should streamline the process for proposing new and revised subject and genre/form headings.
    • Tentative Lists. Effective with classification and subject headings weekly list 1121 (dated June 15, 2011), the Policy and Standards Division changed the frequency of the tentative and the approved weekly lists to a monthly schedule. This is an experimental change and may be revised as circumstances dictate. The upcoming implementation of a new system for creating subject heading proposals, similar to the current system for making classification proposals, makes this an opportune time to realign workflows to increase efficiency in all division operations. The review process for proposals has not changed.
    • KZ7000-7500. PSD has implemented a new schedule, KZ7000-KZ7500, International criminal law, following up on the development of this distinct sub-discipline of International Law. The new classes in this schedule closely follow the principles and doctrines of international criminal law. The focus of the new schedule is on the International Criminal Court (ICC) established by the Rome Treaty (1998/2002) as well as the procedures governing the international investigation and prosecution of conduct viewed by the international community as international crimes. The widening catalog of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and genocide, forms the center of the substantive development. Hand in hand with the new development, new subject headings were created and older subject headings were revised.

      The original and outdated ranges in Class KZ for International criminal courts and procedure, KZ6304-KZ6332, have been closed, as well as the classes for reports, digests, and pleadings of the newly erected court, KZ219-KZ220.2. Furthermore, the original numbers in Class K (Law in general. Comparative law) for those subjects that are governed by international criminal law and under the jurisdiction of the ICC, i.e., genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, have been closed or revised. References have been provided to direct users of the schedules to the new numbers. A substantial number of titles (mainly monographs), have been reclassed and the works transferred to their new KZ classification numbers. This new classification does not preclude developments on International criminal law, courts and procedure, and prosecution of international crimes in the regional or national law classification schedules if it should become necessary. Updated print editions of K and KZ, as well as the publication, JZ and KZ: Historical Notes and Introduction to Application, will be available from CDS soon.

    • Subject Heading Projects. PSD has undertaken several short-term projects to update subject headings and references, to bring them into alignment with current standards as defined by the Subject Headings Manual, or to modify outdated language. Some examples are as follows.
      • The Netherlands Antilles, an autonomous country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was dissolved on October 10, 2010. The islands of Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are now special municipalities of the Netherlands proper. Curaçao and Sint Maarten are constituent countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The dissolution affects jurisdictional qualifiers, broader terms, and scope notes in LCSH.
      • Late in 2010, PSD was asked to consider reevaluating subject cataloging practice as it relates to Tibet. After consulting with experts in Tibetan studies, the cataloging policy specialists in PSD agreed to revise the name authority headings for the jurisdiction of Tibet and also to establish a new subject heading. The headings and their assignment now conform to international descriptive cataloging rules as set forth in the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd Edition, and to policies governing the assignment of Library of Congress Subject Headings as described in the Subject Headings Manual.

        Tibet (LCCN n2011015804): the governmental jurisdiction of Tibet before September 1, 1965. It may be applied as a descriptive access point to works emanating from or published by the government of independent Tibet. It may not be assigned as a subject heading or geographic subdivision.

        Tibet Autonomous Region (China) (LCCN n 79100917): the current province-level governmental jurisdiction within the People’s Republic of China that was formalized on September 1, 1965. It may be applied as a descriptive access point to works emanating from or published by the government of Tibet after that date. It may also be assigned as a subject heading for works about Tibet as an independent country and as a jurisdiction within China.

        Tibet Region (LCCN sh2011001106): the geographic region of Tibet, sometimes referred to as “Greater Tibet.” The geographic extent of this region is much larger than the governmental jurisdiction of Tibet. It corresponds to the traditional regions of Ü-Tsang, Ngari, Amdo, and Kham, which are chiefly within the borders of China and also extend into India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Burma.

        Tibet, Plateau of (LCCN sh 86005180): the geographic feature. The qualifier “China” has been removed from the existing heading to reflect the extent of the plateau, which is not only in China but also extends into Nepal and India. Geographically, the Plateau of Tibet is similar to, but not coextensive with, the Tibet Region.

    • HIVE at LC. The Library of Congress launched an experiment this past year to use HIVE (Helping Interdisciplinary Vocabulary Engineering at http://ils.unc.edu/mrc/hive/) to automatically generate subject headings for LC’s web archives. The experiment is starting with the public policy web archives. The HIVE software is expected to “learn” relevant vocabulary based on these web pages to offer ever-better suggestions to assist catalogers

    GENRE/FORM TERMS

    • Revision of MARC Coding. On May 24, 2011, more than 700 existing genre/form authority records were cancelled and reissued with new MARC coding. LCGFT authority records now have an 008/11 value of “z” (other) and an 040$f value of “lcgft.” PSD also took this opportunity to change the LCCN prefix in the records to “gf” from “sh.” The revised MARC coding will enable automatic validation of LCGFT terms applied in bibliographic records, and the new LCCN prefix is an additional marker indicating that the terms are from the new thesaurus.

      The revision to the MARC coding also required that the coding of LCGFT terms in bibliographic records be updated. As of May 24th the correct coding is:

      655 #7 $a [term]. $2 lcgft.

      PSD has begun to undertake the bibliographic file maintenance necessitated by this change and expects to complete it before the end of 2011.

    • Cartography Project. Approximately 65 cartographic genre/form terms were approved in mid-May and the LCSH form subdivisions used for maps were revised on August 18, 2010. LC implemented the new genre/form headings and revised subdivisions on September 1, 2010. PSD is beginning to draft an instruction sheet on the application of genre/form terms for cartographic materials. SACO proposals are now being accepted.
    • Law Project. In November 2010, PSD approved approximately 80 genre/form terms for law. This marked the culmination of a successful partnership between PSD and the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL), whose members developed a thesaurus of law genre/form terms and presented it to PSD for inclusion in LCGFT. On June 15, 2011 the Library of Congress began to apply law genre/form terms to new cataloging, chiefly for English-language works. LCGFT terms for law that appear on copy cataloging will be retained and/or revised as necessary, in accordance with LC’s standard copy cataloging procedures.
    • Music Project. The Music Library Association (MLA) has partnered with PSD to develop genre/form terms in the area of music. The parties have agreed to a list of more than 1,000 genre/form terms and are now developing the syntactic structure. They are also developing a list of mediums of performance and discussing where the mediums should be coded within the MARC record, since they will not be included in LCGFT. In support of this project, MLA’s Subject Access Subcommittee has presented a MARC discussion paper entitled “Additional means of identifying medium of performance in the MARC 21 bibliographic and authority formats.” Numbered 2011-DP05, it is on MARBI’s agenda for this conference.
    • Religion Project. The American Theological Library Association (ATLA) and PSD have partnered to develop the genre/form terms in the area of religion, and ATLA is also coordinating the participation of smaller library organizations organized around religion, such as the Catholic Library Association. ATLA has created a wiki for interested parties to suggest terms and discuss issues related to them.

  • 2010 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, Boston, January 2010
    Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., June 2010

    Yael Mandelstam
    Fordham Law School Library
    ymandelstam [at] law.fordham.edu

    The Subject Analysis Committee studies problems and recommends improvements in patterns, methods, and tools for the subject analysis, organization, and retrieval of information resources, and provides liaison for those areas of interest between CCS and other ALA and non-ALA organizations that have an interest in and concern for these activities.

    Following is a summary of SAC activities and highlights from the Library of Congress (LC) reports.

    SAC/LC Free-floating Subdivision Review

    After reviewing a proposal presented by Janis Young, the LC liaison to SAC, a decision was made at Midwinter to create a joint SAC/LC task group for reviewing Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) free-floating subdivisions. The project was divided into three phases: identifying categories of subdivisions in the Subject Headings Manual (SHM) memo H1095; arranging all the free-floating subdivisions in H1095 into the categories developed in phase one; and evaluating all the free-floating subdivisions. The group will submit recommendations to the LC Policy and Standards Division (PSD) for cancelling obsolete subdivisions, combining nearly synonymous subdivisions, revising or rewording subdivisions, and establishing new pattern headings. Phases one and two were completed by June 2010 and phase three is scheduled to begin shortly after ALA Annual.

    SAC Faceting Task Force

    As the use of the term “faceting” is proliferating and becoming less precise, the new task force will look at how the term is defined and will explore the faceting concept in the current environment as it relates to subject terminology.

    LCGFT Pre-Conference Proposal for ALA Annual 2011

    In coordination with PSD, the SAC chair had submitted a proposal to the ALCTS Program Committee for a pre-conference workshop on the application and development of the new Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT) for ALA Annual 2011.

    Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation

    A small working group within the subcommittee is reviewing LCSH form subdivision in 185 authority records and is evaluating which heading could be used as genre/form terms and which 185 subdivisions may be cancelled or modified. The group will send its recommendations to members of the subcommittee for review. Once passed, the recommendations will be reviewed by PSD and if approved, the list of genre/form terms will go back to the working group for the creation of scope notes and cross references.

    The subcommittee is also working on evaluating the pros and cons of various possible treatments of information related to genre/form terms such as place, ethnicity, language, and intended audience. When done, the subcommittee will submit its recommendations to PSD.

    The subcommittee’s proposal to MARBI to establish a MARC 21 source code for LC’s genre/form thesaurus was approved. In May 2010, LC announced the new code “lcgft”, along with a new name for the term list: “Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials”.

    Subcommittee on FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology)

    FAST–a subject vocabulary derived from LCSH–was developed by OCLC in cooperation with the Library of Congress. The subcommittee on FAST continued to explore issues related to FAST implementation.

    The book FAST: Faceted Application of Subject Terminology: Principles and Application by Lois Chan and Ed O’Neill is being published by Libraries Unlimited and is expected to be released in July. Other FAST developments include the addition of many references, geographic coordinates, functionality enabling user contributions, and improvement of the conversion of LCSH to FAST.

    The FAST database is available at http://fast.oclc.org. The full FAST authority file can be licensed for non-commercial use.

    Highlights from reports submitted by Janis Young, the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division.

    The full LC at ALA report is available at http://www.loc.gov/ala.

    • New Editions of LC Classification Schedules. The new editions of two schedules are now available: P-PA: Philology and Linguistics (General), Greek Language and Literature, Latin Language and Literature (2010 edition); and PL-PM: Languages of Eastern Asia, Africa, Oceania; Hyperborean, Indian, and Artificial Languages (2010 edition).
    • Library of Congress Subject Headings, 32nd edition (2010). The 32nd edition of LCSH is now available continues to feature a sixth volume entitled Supplementary Vocabularies. It includes free-floating subdivisions, genre/form headings, and children’s subject headings. Supplementary Vocabularies is also sold as a stand-alone item.
    • Other Publications Available for Purchase. Free-Floating Subdivisions: An Alphabetical Index, 22nd edition; Subject Headings Manual, Update No. 1 (2010); Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, 2010 Updates.
    • Authorities & Vocabularies. The vision for the Authorities & Vocabularies service (http://id.loc.gov), which went live in April 2009, is focused on the automatic generation of metadata for digital documents, digital tables of contents, and digital summaries. The service will provide code lists, subject headings, and other terminologies, which can be used to automatically provide codes, suggest subject headings and alternate terminology from various lists, and enrich searching. The Authorities & Vocabularies service is free and open to the public for searching, downloading, and linking to any of the data contained in the service.
    • Pre- vs. Post-Coordination in LCSH. PSD has completed a review of the status of the initiatives and projects outlined in the 2007 report on pre- versus post-coordination of LCSH. The status review, entitled “The Policy and Standards Division’s Progress on the Recommendations made in ‘Library of Congress Subject Headings: Pre- vs. Post-Coordination and Related Issues'” was approved by the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate (ABA) managers in May and is available to the public through LC’s web site at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/pre_vs_postupdate.pdf.
    • LCSH Validation Records. As of June 2010, there are more than 45,000 subject validation records. These records were generated from LCSH subject heading strings used in bibliographic records, for which no authority records had previously been created. The objective of this project is to enable more machine-validation of subject headings assigned in bibliographic records.
    • Reclass of LAW 7 Titles. Work on the retrospective conversion project to assign K schedule classification to previously unclassified legal documents continued within the Law Section of the U.S. Publisher and Liaison Division. As of the end of April, 10,271 items had been reclassed this fiscal year.
    • Subject Headings for Cooking and Cookbooks. On the June 2, 2010 Tentative Weekly List, PSD approved revisions to approximately 800 subject headings for cooking and cookbooks, to replace the word “Cookery” with “Cooking” (e.g. Cooking, Cooking (Butter), Cooking for the sick, Aztec cooking, Cooking, American–Southwestern style). In approximately 500 additional authority records, the reference structure for a heading was revised but not the heading itself (e.g., Brunches, Comfort food, and Tortillas had the broader term Cookery); in such cases the revisions were made offlist. A new topical subject heading Cookbooks and a genre/form heading Cookbooks have also been approved, and are available for use.
    • Subdivisions for Video Recordings. The subdivisions –Video catalogs, –Video recordings for foreign speakers, –Video recordings for French, [Spanish, etc.] speakers, and –Film and video adaptations were revised or cancelled on March 3, 2010. This marked the final phase in the cancellation of headings and subdivisions for video recording forms and genres in LCSH in accordance with the decision announced on November 6, 2009 in the paper entitled “Decision Regarding the Final Disposition of LCSH Headings for Video Recordings.
    • Subject Heading Projects. Since the Midwinter Meeting, PSD has undertaken several short-term projects to update subject headings and references, to bring them into alignment with current standards as defined by the Subject Headings Manual, or to modify outdated language. Some examples are as follows:
      • The project to revise headings qualified by religion (e.g., Monasteries, Lutheran) into direct order has been completed.
      • All shopping centers that were established in LCSH have now been established in the name authority file, pursuant to PSD’s 2009 ruling to move them into SHM H 405 Group 1.
      • A question from a cataloger led PSD to realize that the heading Frankenstein (Fictitious character) was being improperly used for both Dr. Frankenstein and for Frankenstein’s monster. The headings Frankenstein (Fictitious character) and Frankenstein (Fictitious character) in literature have been cancelled and replaced by two different headings, Frankenstein, Victor (Fictitious character) and Frankenstein’s monster (Fictitious character). The bibliographic records have also been corrected.
      • The Folger Shakespeare Library is working on a project to establish every Shakespearean character through the SACO program. PSD has determined that characters with non-unique names (e.g., Clown, Bianca) should be represented by a single heading; in effect, the headings will be undifferentiated names.
      • PSD has also approved proposals to establish headings for two events currently in the news. LCSH now includes the headings Eyjafjallajökull Volcano (Iceland) and Deepwater Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill, 2010. The former was a SACO proposal made by the University of Washington and the latter proposal originated in PSD.

    Genre/Form Terms

    • Genre/Form Thesaurus to be Separated from LCSH. The genre/form thesaurus is now entitled, Library of Congress Genre/Form Terms for Library and Archival Materials (LCGFT). This title will appear in print for the first time in the Supplemental Vocabularies volume of the 32nd edition of LCSH. A separate MARC source code “lcgft” has been assigned to distinguish headings in LCGFT from LCSH headings. The authority records will be revised as follows:
      • Byte 11 of the fixed field (008/11) will be coded “z” (“other”)
      • The 040$f will be coded lcgft

      In bibliographic records, terms from LCGFT will be coded: 655 -7 $a [Term.] $2 lcgft
      Additionally, LCCNs with the distinctive prefix “gf” will be used as record control numbers. The authority records will be revised to reflect these changes within the next few months, and PSD will provide at least six weeks’ notice before making these changes.

      PSD is also beginning work on a separate, self-contained, manual for genre/form terms and is investigating the possibility of extracting LCGFT from Supplementary Vocabularies and publishing it separately.

    • Moving Image and Sound Recordings Projects. The moving image and sound recording headings have moved out of the development stage and are now being maintained.
    • Cartography Project. Approximately 65 cartographic genre/form headings were approved in mid-May and the subdivisions used for maps will be revised in late summer, with LC implementation to occur soon thereafter, but no earlier than August 1, 2010. PSD will announce the firm implementation date as soon as it becomes available.
    • Law Project. The American Association of Law Libraries continues to work with PSD to revise its report, “Genre/Form Terms for Law Materials.” Online proposals for the headings will be created in mid-2010, with formal approval to follow. In addition, LC’s Hebraica Cataloging Section is conferring with the Jewish Theological Seminary and other interested groups to develop a list of headings for Jewish law. LC will implement law genre/form headings submitted by AALL in the beginning of 2011.
    • Music Project. PSD is collaborating closely with the Music Library Association to deconstruct existing topical headings into their constituent genres/forms, carriers, and mediums of performance, so that those elements can be separately coded and searched.
    • Religion Project. The American Theological Libraries Association (ATLA) is partnering with PSD to develop genre/form headings for religion. Janis Young, LC’s genre/form coordinator, moderated a round table presentation on genre/form headings at the ATLA conference in June 2010.

  • 2009 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, Denver, January 2009
    Annual Meeting, Chicago, July 2009

    Yael Mandelstam
    Fordham Law School Library
    ymandelstam [at] law.fordham.edu

    The Subject Analysis Committee studies problems and recommends improvements in patterns, methods, and tools for the subject analysis, organization, and retrieval of information resources, and provides liaison for those areas of interest between CCS and other ALA and non-ALA organizations that have an interest in and concern for these activities.

    Currently SAC has liaisons from the Program of Cooperative Cataloging (PCC), MARBI, the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division (PSD), the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL), the Art Libraries Society of North America (RLIS/NA), the Music Library Association (MLA), the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), the Sears List of Subject Headings, the LC Decimal Classification Division, the Dewey Classification and OCLC Dewey Services, and the Dewey Classification Editorial Policy Committee.

    Following is a summary of SAC activities and highlights from the Library of Congress reports.

    Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation

    The subcommittee acts as a facilitator of two-way communication between the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division (PSD) and the cataloging communities with interest in genre/form headings.

    In its ALA Midwinter and Annual meetings, the subcommittee heard progress reports on genre/form projects from the Library of Congress, the Music Library Association, and the American Association of Law Libraries. At ALA Annual, the subcommittee approved a short list of general terms useful for law collections provided by the AALL Law Genre/Form liaison. Members of the subcommittee also decided to send a proposal to PSD regarding the creation of a list of genre/form terms used across disciplines, based on LCSH 185 form subdivisions.

    The subcommittee is planning to synthesize the comments posted on the group’s Listserv (http://lists.ala.org/sympa/arc/form-genre), and formulate recommendations to PSD regarding various genre/form-related issues. The first to be addressed is the issue of subdividing genre/form headings by place, language, etc. Alternatives to subdivisions will also be considered (e.g., use of 655 $8 – Genre/Form Term–Field link and sequence number).

    Subcommittee on FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology)

    FAST—a subject vocabulary derived from LCSH—was developed by OCLC in cooperation with the Library of Congress. The subcommittee on FAST continued to refine and expand the FAST manual and explore issues related to FAST implementation.

    As of July 2009, the FAST authority file contained 1,629,309 terms for topics, forms, personal and corporate names, geographic names, events, periods, and uniform titles. The latest versions of the FAST database and the FAST manual are available at http://fast.oclc.org.

    Highlights from reports submitted by Janis Young, the Library of Congress Policy and Standards Division (PSD).

    The full LC at ALA report is available at http://www.loc.gov/ala.

    • Genre/Form Headings. For general information about genre/form headings and LCSH at the Library of Congress, including a Genre/Form Frequently Asked Questions PDF document as well as a full timeline, visit http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/genreformgeneral.html. The following announcements and documents have recently been added to the site: Genre/Form Headings for Musical Works; SACO Proposals for Moving Image and Radio Program Genre/Form Headings); Genre/Form Headings for Cartographic Materials; Proposed Change to the Structure of LCSH Subdivisions Used for Cartographic Materials Discussion Paper; and Disposition of Video Recording Headings in the New Genre/Form Environment Discussion Paper.
    • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) 31st edition. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) 31st edition is available at the end of June 2009. Because there has been no edition of LCSH published since 2007, this edition will include approximately 17,000 new and 16,000 changed subject headings made since January 2007. LCSH 31st edition will be enlarged to six volumes. The new, sixth volume, LCSH Supplementary Vocabularies, will include free-floating subdivisions, genre/form headings, and children’s subject headings. LCSH 31 is available for $295 in North America and $345 outside North America. Copies may be ordered at www.loc.gov/cds/contact.html.
    • Subject Headings Manual. Formerly known as the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, the 2008 edition of the manual was published under the title Subject Headings Manual. This new edition consolidates the previous updates and complements the Classification and Shelflisting Manual, published in May 2008.
    • Subject Headings Projects. PSD has recently undertaken several short-term projects to update subject headings and references, to bring them into alignment with current standards as defined by the Subject Headings Manual, or to modify outdated language. Some examples are:
      • Headings with inverted religious qualifiers are being revised to natural-language forms (e.g., Cave temples, Buddhist was updated to Buddhist cave temples)
      • Headings for types of insurance and bridges were revised to appear in direct form (e.g., Insurance, Automobile became Automobile insurance and Bridges, Concrete became Concrete bridges)
      • Alien labor was updated to Foreign workers
      • Transcaucasia was updated to South Caucasia, the current terms; all uses of the phrase “Transcaucasian” was updated to “South Caucasian”
      • The headings for Kosovo and all related headings were updated when Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia in early 2008
      • PSD worked with the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) on a project to assist catalogers in determining whether individual headings are inherently legal. AALL provided the Division with lists of headings that its members determined to be inherently legal; the Division vetted the lists and added a reference from topic subdivided by –Law and legislation where appropriate (e.g., Abuse of rights–Law and legislation SEE Abuse of rights)

      In each case, all related records were also updated.

      The headings for the U.S. Census were also modified to remove the census number (e.g., United States–Census, 1st, 1790 was updated to United States–Census, 1790). This change brings the treatment of the U.S. Census into agreements with the treatment of other census.

      A broader term in the form [War]–Campaigns–[Place] is now being added to headings for bombardments that occur as part of wars. The existing headings were updated.

      PSD and the British Library have undertaken a project to standardize the plural qualifiers in headings for classes of locomotives, and to update the broader terms so they reflect the specific type of locomotive (steam, diesel, etc.) instead of the more general Locomotives.

    • Library of Congress Classification. Available from the Cataloging Distribution Service are new print 2009 editions of K (Law in General. Comparative and Uniform Law. Jurisprudence), T (Technology), and Z (Bibliography. Library Science. Information Resources).
    • Drafts of KBS and KBT. Drafts of the newly developed subclasses KBS (Canon Law of Eastern Churches) and KBT (Canon Law of Eastern Rite Churches in Communion with the Holy See of Rome), have been posted for an extended trial period for cataloging and collection staff at the Library of Congress and at other institutions. Users of these drafts should note the substantial revisions and restructuring in overlap areas with the older classes KBR and KBU, as well as with subclasses BR (Christianity) and BX (Christian Denominations), in the Religion schedule. The drafts are available in the form of PDF files at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/KBS-KBT.html.
    • Cyrillic forms in LCC subclass PG. Cyrillic forms are in the process of being added to captions in subclass PG for individual literary authors and titles of belletristic works written in Cyrillic script. In addition, authors’ death dates are being added to many of these captions.
    • Cataloger’s Desktop. “Desktop 3.0” – A major modernization of the product to enhance searching and navigation will be completed after the ALA annual meeting. Visit www.loc.gov/cds/desktop for the latest news. This online cataloging and metadata documentation service now features more than 280 resources, as well as Spanish-, French-, and German-language interfaces.
    • LC Authorities and Vocabularies service. The Library of Congress has opened its id.loc.gov Webservice, “Authorities and Vocabularies”, with the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) as the initial offering. The primary goal of this service is to enable machines to programmatically access data at the Library of Congress, but the Webinterface also provides simple access for human users. This service is a step toward exposing and interconnecting vocabulary and thesaurus data at no cost via URLs. For LCSH, terms have been linked to a similar service provided in Europe for RAMEAU, a French subject heading vocabulary closely coordinated with LCSH. The Library is interested in feedback on the uses and usefulness of the service to inform ways that we might enhance it. (There is a comment form at the site.) Over the next few months the service will be expanding to include other vocabularies commonly found in standards that the Library supports such as the Thesaurus of Graphic Materials; geographic area, language, and relator codes; and preservation events and roles. The site is accessible at http://id.loc.gov.
    • Cataloging Service Bulletin Back Issues. All issues (1-123, summer 1978-spring 2009) of Cataloging Service Bulletin (CSB) are now available at no cost at http://www.loc.gov/cds/PDFdownloads/csb. The entire 31 years of CSB are made available by LC as a free service to the worldwide library community. The issues are also available and searchable in Cataloger’s Desktop.
    • Virtual International Authority File (VIAF). At the end of 2008, the Library of Congress, the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, the Bibliothèque nationale de France, and OCLC signed a new agreement to add the National Library of Sweden as the next partner to the VIAF. Since then, the National Library of the Czech Republic, the National Library of Israel, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Egypt), the Vatican Library, the National Library of Portugal, and the National Library of Spain have formally been added. An additional 10 institutions have submitted applications and are expected to be added during 2009. VIAF is a service that matches and links the world’s large personal name authority files. The beta version currently includes more than 10.4 million personal name authority records, accessible at www.viaf.org. During 2008 VIAF expanded to include non-Latin characters. Future plans are to expand to geographic names, corporate names, and uniform titles.

  • 2008 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, Philadelphia, January 2008
    Annual Meeting, Anaheim, June 2008

    Yael Mandelstam
    Fordham Law School Library
    ymandelstam [at] law.fordham.edu

    The Subject Analysis Committee is charged with “studying problems and recommending improvements in patterns, methods, and tools (particularly classification and subject headings systems) for the subject analysis, organization, and retrieval of information resources, and providing liaison for those areas of interest between CCS and other ALA and non-ALA organizations that have an interest in and concern for these activities.”

    The Committee meets at ALA Midwinter and ALA Annual on Sunday, 9:30 AM – 11:00 AM and Monday, 1:30 PM – 4:30 PM. Meetings are mainly devoted to reports from the various SAC liaisons and reports from the chairs of SAC and its subcommittees.

    Following is a summary of SAC activities and highlights from the Library of Congress reports.

    Joint SAC/PCC Task Force on Library of Congress Classification Training

    The task force has completed its work and submitted its final report at Midwinter. Information on the Fundamentals of Library of Congress Classification workshop is available at http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/cct/classify/index.html.

    Subcommittee on the Future of Subject Headings

    The charge of the subcommittee is to “analyze the future of subject analysis using controlled vocabulary through the use of SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, taking into consideration both internal forces within the library community and external environment.”

    Since the subcommittee broadened the scope of its charge from Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH ) to controlled vocabularies in general, it reopened the discussion on its Listserv at http://lists.ala.org/wws/arc/headings/. Though the discussion is now closed, the archived postings are worth reading. The subcommittee will submit its final report at ALA Midwinter 2009 and is planning a panel discussion at Annual 2009.

    Subcommittee on Genre/Form Implementation

    The subcommittee acts as a facilitator of two-way communication between the Library of Congress Cataloging and Support Office (CPSO) and the cataloging communities with interest in genre/form headings, including but not limited to the moving images, music and law communities.

    In a recent open letter to the Library of Congress Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate, the subcommittee stated its support for the continued creation of authority records for genre/form headings. The subcommittee offered to partner with the Library of Congress in the Genre/Form Authority Record Project and voiced interest in the creation of a SACO Genre/Form Funnel.

    The subcommittee plans to identify genre/form headings currently established as 150 authority records, develop a list of general genre/form terms that are used across disciplines (e.g. Periodicals), and explore the use of geographic subdivisions for genre/form headings.

    Subcommittee on FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology)

    FAST–a subject vocabulary derived from LCSH– was developed by OCLC in cooperation with the Library of Congress. The subcommittee on FAST continued to refine and expand the FAST manual and explore issues related to FAST implementation.

    As of July 20, 2008, the FAST authority file contained 1,668,161 terms for topics, forms, personal and corporate names, geographic names, events, periods, and uniform titles. The latest version of the FAST database and the FAST manual are available at http://fast.oclc.org.

    Highlights from reports submitted by Janis Young (Midwinter) and Ana Cristán (Annual), Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO)

    The full LC at ALA report is available at http://www.loc.gov/ala.

    LCSH: Pre- vs. Post-coordination. In response to a request from the Director of Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access (ABA) for a review of the pros and cons of pre- versus post-coordination of Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), CPSO prepared a report, “Library of Congress Subject Headings: Pre- vs. Post-Coordination and Related Issues.” In addition to a review of the issue of pre- versus post-coordination, CPSO made recommendations to reduce the costs for and further automate the process of subject cataloging while retaining the benefits of the pre-coordinated strings of LCSH. The final report is available on the Library’s Cataloging and Acquisitions home page at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/pre_vs_post.html.

    LCSH Subject Validation Records and Classification Web. In May 2007, the Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) began distributing a series of subject authority records that were created solely for the purpose of allowing for machine validation of commonly used subject strings consisting of established headings combined with free-floating subdivisions. As of June 2008, over 29,000 of these so-called “validation records” have been distributed, and they are continuing to be distributed at an accelerated pace. The LC Subject Search screen in Class Web was recently restructured to allow users the option of excluding or including the validation records in their search results.

    Genre/Form Authority Records. The Library of Congress is continuing its efforts to develop genre/form headings (MARC tag 155), and is currently active in two areas: moving images (films, television programs, and video recordings) and radio programs. The Cataloging Policy and Support Office has submitted a report to the Director for Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access, recommending that further projects, e.g., genre/form authority records for music and law headings, be investigated and undertaken.

    Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. With the 2008 update, the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings is current through the end of February 2008. This is the final update to the 5th edition of the manual. In autumn 2008, a new edition of the manual will be published under the title Subject Headings Manual. The new edition will consolidate the previous updates and complement the Classification and Shelflisting Manual, published in May 2008.

    Classification and Shelflisting Manual. In 1992, a classification manual consisting of individual instruction sheets on the application of Library of Congress Classification in specific cataloging situations was published under the title Subject Cataloging Manual: Classification. The first edition of a shelflisting manual was published in 1987 as Subject Cataloging Manual: Shelflisting, followed by a second edition in 1995. Because classification and shelflisting are such closely related processes, for this new 2008 edition the two manuals were combined into a single loose-leaf volume with the title Classification and Shelflisting Manual. The shelflisting portion of the manual in particular has been extensively revised and reorganized, and many of the instruction sheets have been assigned new numbers. The 2008 edition of the Classification and Shelflisting Manual is available from the Cataloging Distribution Service.

    LCSH and SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System). LC is working with the Semantic Web Deployment Working Group of the World Wide Web Consortium to develop SKOS, which will support the use of classification systems and thesauri in the World Wide Web. Here is information from http://lcsh.info, the project’s site: “This is an experimental service that makes the Library of Congress Subject Headings available as inked-data using the SKOS vocabulary. The goal of lcsh.info is to encourage experimentation and use of LCSH on the web with the hopes of informing a similar effort at the Library of Congress to make a continually updated version available. More information about the Linked Data effort can be found on the W3C Wiki.”

  • 2007 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, Seattle, January 2007
    Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., June 2007

    Yael Mandelstam
    Fordham Law School Library
    ymandelstam [at] law.fordham.edu

    In the past year, the Subject Analysis Committee (SAC) and its subcommittees focused mainly on the future of subject headings, the development of genre/form headings, and the application of faceted subject terminology.

    The 2007 Midwinter minutes and reports are available on the SAC website at http://www.ala.org/ala/alctscontent/catalogingsection/catcommittees/subjectanalysis/subjectanalysis.htm. The 2007 Annual meeting documents will be posted online at a later date.

    Following is a summary of SAC activities and highlights from the LC reports.

    Subcommittee on the Future of Subject Headings

    The charge of the subcommittee is to “analyze the future of subject cataloging, with emphasis on Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) through the use of SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, taking into consideration both internal forces within the library community and external environment.”

    After its first meeting at ALA Midwinter the subcommittee established a Listserv to discuss Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of LCSH. Over 750 people signed up for the list and the discussions were extremely interesting and often quite heated. Check out the list archive at http://lists.ala.org/wws/arc/headings/

    The subcommittee will submit its final report at ALA Midwinter 2008 and is planning a panel discussion at Annual 2008.

    Subcommittee on Genre/Form Headings

    At ALA Annual, the subcommittee sponsored the program New Developments in Form/Genre Access: where we are, where are we heading, and where we want to be. The presenters were Robert Maxwell from Brigham Young University, Adam Schiff from the University of Washington, and Geraldine Ostrove, a music specialist from the Library of Congress. The speakers described how they have been handling genre/form headings at their respective institutions, the impact of using terms from different thesauri in the MARC 21 655 field, the challenges presented by the current mix of form and topic in the LCSH authority records for topical terms (MARC 21 field 150), and the opportunities provided by the Library of Congress’s anticipated release of genre/form authority records (MARC 21 field 155).

    At the time this report was written, the program presentations have not yet been available online, but they should be posted soon at http://www.ala.org/ala/alcts/alctsconted/alctsceevents/alctsannual/formgenreaccess.htm

    The subcommittee has completed its charge and was disbanded at ALA Annual. Since SAC members felt that there was still much work to be done in the area of genre/form heading, a new subcommittee was established. Various ideas for the charge of the new genre/form subcommittees were suggested at the last SAC meeting at ALA Annual but the final charge is yet to be determined.

    Subcommittee on FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology)

    FAST–a subject vocabulary derived from the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)– is being developed by OCLC in cooperation with the Library of Congress. The subcommittee on FAST continued to refine the FAST manual and explore issues related to FAST implementation.

    The FAST authority file, which can be accessed at http://fast.oclc.org, contains terms for topics, forms, personal and corporate names, geographic names, events, periods, and uniform titles. All the facets were completed by the Fall of 2007, and the FAST team is now focusing on fine-tuning individual records and on developing reference records that control the way LCSH headings are converted to FAST headings.

    If you would like to learn more about the project, check out the FAST website at http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/fast/.

    Joint SAC/PCC Task Force on Library of Congress Classification Training

    The task force had a one day run-through at ALA Midwinter 2007 and a two day pre-conference workshop at Annual 2007.

    The task force’s term was extended to ALA Midwinter 2008 to provide the group with additional time needed for final edits. The training material developed by the group will first be used by PCC in a train-the-trainer session to be held at the Library of Congress in late October 2007.

    Highlights from reports submitted by Lynn El-Hoshy (Midwinter) and Paul Frank (Annual), Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO)

    Subject Cataloging

    • Major Subject Headings Changes. The headings Insanity and Insanity–Jurisprudence were cancelled in favor of Insanity (Law) and Insanity defense. The existing heading Insane, which had only been used in combination with legal subdivisions, was cancelled in favor of using Mentally Ill in all situations.

      CPSO revised the headings for God to provide a distinction in access between general and comparative works (under the unqualified heading God) and works from a Christian perspective (under the heading God (Christianity)). These revisions provide a uniform treatment for the concept in all religions, since the headings for other religions were already established as God (Islam), God (Judaism), etc.

    • LC will Continue to Apply Precoordinated Subject Headings. At the request of the director of the Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate (ABA), the Cataloging Policy and Support Office studied the pros and cons of precoordinated subject strings. On June 13, 2007, the ABA Directorate Management Team endorsed the CPSO recommendation that the Library of Congress continue to apply precoordinated subject headings. The Management Team also accepted a suite of recommendations aimed at making precoordinated LCSH easier to apply.
    • Authority Records For LCSH Strings. The Cataloging distribution Service (CDS) announced that it will be increasing the number of subject authority records it distributes to subscribers of MARC Distribution Service–Subject Authorities. The additional authority records will reflect LCSH strings for topics and places followed by free-floating subdivisions. The decision to provide more subject string authority records for popular and frequently-assigned headings is intended to minimize the need for cataloging staff to devise precoordinated strings “from scratch” when assigning subject access points. This will also make systems more effective at automatically validating LCSH.
    • Genre/Form Headings. The Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service will begin to issue genre/form authority records (MARC 21 field 155) no earlier than September 3, 2007. This effort represents the final phase of the planned expansion of LCSH to include records representing subdivisions (MARC 21 field 18X), and genre/form headings, originally announced and initiated in 1998. In working to define the guidelines for the creation and application of these headings, CPSO has drafted instruction sheet H 1913 for the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. The draft is available at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/h1913dft.pdf (163 KB PDF). Note that this instruction sheet covers only the development and use of genre/form headings for moving image; however, the plan is to create similar instruction sheets for other areas where genre/form headings can be created and applied, such as music, radio, law, etc. Because this instruction sheet will serve as the model for these other subject areas, CPSO invites comments and suggestions for improvement, to be sent to Janis Young at jayo@loc.gov
    • RSS Feeds for LCSH and LCC Weekly Lists. The Library of Congress Subject Headings Weekly Lists and Library of Congress Classification Weekly Lists are now available as free RSS feeds. To subscribe, go to http://www.loc.gov/rss/ and select “Library of Congress Subject Headings Weekly Lists” and/or “Library of Congress Classification Weekly Lists.”
    • LCSH Milestone. At the end of February 2007 there were 300,065 subject authority records in Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), making it by far the largest subject authority file in the world.
    • Library of Congress Subject Headings, 30th edition was just published and includes approved subject headings and changes through November 2006.

    Classification

    • New Editions of Classification Schedules. Since the 2006 ALA Annual meeting, new LCC editions include H (Social Sciences), M (Music and Books on Music), P-PZ Tables (Language and Literature), PL-PM (Languages of Eastern Asia, Oceania, Hyperborean, Indian and Artificial Languages), PN (Literature (General)), Q (Science), and T (Technology). There will also be new editions of N (Fine Arts) and E-F (History: America) before the end of 2007.
    • Classification Proposals. A new system for submitting classification proposals and producing the Library of Congress Classification Weekly Lists was implemented in November 2006. The new system is being used by LC cataogers and PCC SACO participants who subscribe to Classification Web.

    Much more information about the Library of Congress is posted at each ALA meeting. Check out full LC updates at http://www.loc.gov/ala.

  • 2006 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collection and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee (SAC)
    Midwinter Meeting, San Antonio, January 2006
    Annual Meeting, New Orleans, June 2006

    Yael Mandelstam
    Fordham Law School Library
    ymandelstam [at] law.fordham.edu

    I very much enjoyed my first year as the AALL representative to the Subject Analysis Committee. I attended all the committee and subcommittees meetings and programs and learned that while most of the work is done by the subcommittees, it all comes together at the committee meetings when the SAC chair, the subcommittees, and the various liaisons submit their reports.

    The 2006 Midwinter minutes and reports are available on the SAC website at http://www.ala.org/ala/alctscontent/catalogingsection/
    catcommittees/subjectanalysis/subjectanalysis.htm. The 2006 Annual meeting documents will be posted online at a later date. Following is a summary of SAC activities and highlights from Lynn El-Hoshy’s LC reports.

    Joint SAC/PCC Task Force on Library of Congress Classification Training

    At ALA Annual, the task force presented Understanding LC Classification: A Preview of an ALCTS/PCC Workshop. The program opened with a presentation of the course outline followed by a demonstration of one course section dealing with the elements of LC call numbers (class number + book number).

    The task force is planning a one day run-through at ALA Midwinter 2007 and a two day pre-conference workshop at Annual 2007.

    Subcommittee on FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology)

    FAST, cooperatively developed by OCLC and the Library of Congress, is a simplified subject vocabulary derived from LCSH. The subcommittee on FAST continues to explore issues related to FAST implementation as well as to advise the FAST development team on scope and suitability of FAST vocabulary and on improving FAST documentation.

    The FAST authority file can be accessed at http://fast.oclc.org. The file currently includes records for personal and corporate names, geographic names, and topical and form headings. Within the next year the FAST team expects to complete conference/meetings and uniform titles facets.

    The program FAST: A New System of Subject Access for Cataloging and Metadata was presented at ALA Annual and is available, along with other project related information, at http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/fast/

    Subcommittee on Semantic Interoperability

    There is an increasing need for knowledge organization systems to manage access to resources across multiple languages and controlled vocabularies. A good design should achieve not only interoperability but also minimize loss of meaning in search results.

    The subcommittee’s charge was to survey the current state of international interoperability projects that focus on subject and/or classification data and to produce a document outlining “best practices.”

    The subcommittee submitted its final report to SAC. The report is available at http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/library/Departments/abc/SACSEM-Compiled.htm

    New SAC Subcommittees

    The committee is in the process of forming two new subcommittees, one to plan a program for ALA Annual 2007 on local procedures for handling form/genre headings and one to examine strengths and weaknesses of LCSH with a view to making recommendations for making it more cost effective. Volunteers for the subcommittees were identified at ALA Annual. Additional details will be announced as they become available.

    Highlights from reports submitted by Lynn El-Hoshy, Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO)

    Subject Headings

    • Major Subject Headings Changes. “Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975” was revised to Vietnam War, 1961-1975; “Biological diversity” was changed to Biodiversity; and “Asia, Southeastern” was revised to Southeast Asia.
    • Library of Congress Subject Headings, 29th edition was just published and includes approved subject headings and changes up to and including Weekly List 05-35 (approved August 31, 2005).
    • Form/Genre Headings. CPSO has begun work on the implementation of form/genre headings in bibliographic and authority records. The first to be tackled are in the areas of moving images and music. The project on music terms, done in collaboration with OCLC and the Music Library Association, will implement MARC 21 X55 fields (Genre/Form Term) and may result in the first use of 155 authority records for LCSH vocabulary.
    • Geographic Authority Record Enhancements. OCLC and CPSO staff developed guidelines and procedures for enhancing a selection of name authority records for jurisdictions by adding 043 fields with geographic area codes and 781 fields showing their geographic subdivision forms. As of early April approx. 83,060 records that met the project criteria were changed to add either field 781 or field 667 with a subject usage note regarding use as a subdivision.

    Classification

    • KBM and KBP. Extensive cataloging and reclassification projects, especially in the field of Islamic law, led to some changes of the principles formulated during the development of the schedules and to a number of refinements, conceptual realignments, or changes in classification procedures. For background information and guidance for application of KBM and KBP see Jolande Goldberg’s Comparative Development of the Classes for Religious Law: the Abrahamic Tradition: Notes on Design and Suggested Use of the Schedules available at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/KBIntro2.pdf
    • New Editions of Classification Schedules. 2006 editions of Class J (Political science), class PL-PM (Languages of Eastern Asia, Africa, Oceania; Hyperborean, Indian, and Artificial Languages), and class Z (Bibliography. Library Science. Information Resources) are now available.
    • Classification Proposals. A new system for automating the classification proposal process is being developed. This summer LC will be looking for SACO volunteers to participate in beta testing.

    Other LC News

    • Free PDF Version of Selected Publications. The following are available at http://www.loc.gov/cds/freepdf.html, beginning with issues published after January 1, 2006: Cataloging Service Bulletin, CONSER Cataloging Manual updates, CONSER Editing Guide updates, Descriptive Cataloging Manual updates, Library of Congress Rules Interpretations updates, MARC 21 Format documentation updates, and Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings updates.
    • Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate (ABA) is planning the reorganization of the acquisitions and bibliographic access divisions into seven new divisions: five along geographic lines and the other two for Overseas Office Administration and the combined Collaborative Programs, Standards, and Training (including CDS and CPSO).
    • ABA Website Redesign. To better meet the needs of catalogers and others users, the Office of Strategic Initiative is now working with ABA to redesign the entire top level of the site currently at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/.
    • Much more information about LC is posted at each ALA meeting. Check out full LC updates at http://www.loc.gov/ala.

  • 2005 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the American Library Association
    Association for Library Collections and Technical Services
    Cataloging and Classification Section
    Subject Analysis Committee
    Midwinter Meeting, Boston, January 2005
    Annual Meeting, Chicago, June 2005

    Marie E. Whited
    Law Library of Congress
    mwhited [at] loc.gov

    Subject Analysis Committee meets Sunday morning and Monday afternoon at both the midwinter and annual meetings. The SAC meetings consist mainly of reports from subcommittees and liaisons. The Library of Congress report is an important part of the meetings. This past year, in addition to general news from the Library of Congress, the liaison, Lynn El-Hoshy, reported on the following items of interest in subject cataloging:

    • –Contributions in [specific field or discipline] under names of persons has been eliminated
    • –Views on [specific field or discipline] can now just be used under the two personal name subjects headings Jesus Christ and Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865
    • 655 second indicator “0” for form/genre headings from LCSH has been implemented at LC

    Please note that the above changes should now be reflected in Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings.

    • 28th edition of Library of Congress Subject Headings is now available.
    • Subject headings for drug addiction and smoking have been revised to reflect current terminology, i.e. Cigarette habit is now Smoking or Nicotine addiction. See weekly lists 13 and 19 (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso)
    • 5 new editions of the printed classification schedules have been published including H

    Other items reported of interest to law catalogers include

    • LC adding machine-generated table of contents to records
    • Cornell will be doing cataloging in publication for Cornell Press titles
    • Government-designated parks, forests, etc. will continue to be in the subject authority file but if they author a work, they will appear in the name authority file with the qualifier (Agency)
    • Indian tribal names will be tagged 151 (geographic name) and can be used as jurisdictions with the MARC indicator set to “1”. (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/tribes.html)

    Cataloging Policy and Support Office has announced a new policy for prioritizing queries:

    1. Responses to queries on LC cataloging policy and practices
    2. Follow-up on suggestions for improvements to CPSO documentation and training
    3. Resolution of authority record problems and correction of corresponding headings in bibliographic records relating to current cataloging
    4. Consolidation/deletion of duplicate name, series, or subject authority records
    5. Errors in subject analysis (subject headings or classification)
    6. Typographical errors and errors in content designation that do not affect access in either a bibliographic or authority record
    7. Other

    Please read the full report at http://www.loc.gov/ala/ as it has a lot of interesting information.

    SAC’s Task Force on Named Buildings and Other Structures was established to review the policies related to establishing buildings and other structures in the subject authority file. They were to determine if it would be appropriate to move headings for these structures to the name authority file. The Task Force concluded that it could not make a recommendation on where the authority records for structures should be located. More information is needed for structures not in the Americas or Western Europe. They did recommend that an art funnel for SACO to work with the NACO art funnel in determining where individual structure proposals should go and for these two groups to collect examples. They felt that more examples should be published to assist catalogers in formulating the headings and that more training should be provided for those contributing structure headings. They recommended the creation of an ARLIS (Art Libraries Society of North America) Cataloging Advisory Committee liaison to SAC.

    The SAC IFLA’s Classification and Indexing Section representatives reported that IFLA has established a working group to study extending the FRBR model to subject authority records. IFLA has three other working groups dealing with multilingual thesauri, subject access tools, and minimal requirements for subject access by national bibliographic services.

    Subcommittee on LCC Training Materials plans on presenting preview section of the new classification training workshop at ALA annual 2006 and a pre-conference in 2007. They are working on an outline and the course will focus on general classification with a special focus on schedules H, N and P. It will also include practices for special types of materials, i.e. serials, biographies, works about other works, etc.

    The FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Headings) Subcommittee reviewed a sample of bibliographic records where the LC subject headings were converted to FAST headings. These FAST headings were created and added to the records by algorithms. The headings reviewed indicated some problems in the conversion but not a great many. The Subcommittee advises the FAST program on the scope and suitability of FAST vocabulary, on the FAST use of authority format, on documentation and on other relevant topics. Information can be found at http://fast.oclc.org. The idea is to develop a vocabulary that can be used by personnel without extensive training.

    SAC’s Subcommittee on Semantic Interoperability is close to finishing its charge and is working on editing their report. They have identified about 36 projects and are developing evaluation criteria for projects to use. There will be both a bibliography and a glossary with the final report. The goal is to create some documents to provide guidance to the creators of semantically interoperable vocabularies and systems. Renardus (http://www.renardus.org) is a good example of a successful semantic interoperability project and it provides integrated search and browse access to records across Europe. The final report should explain the work of this subcommittee in more detail and it should be available by January 2006.

  • 2004 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    Midwinter Meeting, San Diego, January 2004
    Annual Meeting, Orlando, June 2004

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library
    Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

    The Subject Analysis Committee met in San Diego during January, 2004 and in Orlando during June, 2004. SAC meetings consist mainly of reports from their subcommittees and from their representatives to and from other library groups.

    SAC Subcommittee on Subject Analysis Training has finished its work on the training course for subject headings. The course was presented in Orlando and received excellent reviews. It will be ready for use sometime during the fall and will be available from ALCTS and the Program for Cooperative Cataloging. Thirty trainers from the United States have been trained and three from Canada. The course is necessary for any beginning cataloger and is helpful for advanced catalogers.

    SACO has changed its guidelines for participation. Please see http://www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/sacofaq.html
    http://www.loc.gov/catdir/pcc/saco/tgsacoprog_sc.html

    Here is more information:

    1. What options do I have if I have need of a subject heading and my institution decides not to become an institutional member?
    A cataloger from a non-PCC participating institution who needs a subject heading not available in LCSH or an LC classification number not found in the LC schedules now has the following options available for sending forward a proposal to SACO. 1) Contact a nearby institution that is currently a PCC member and request to submit your new proposal through their contribution mechanism. The second alternative is for your institution to 2) explore entering into a SACO funnel cooperative project and make contributions through an active subject funnel. See the response to SACO funnel question #12 below.

    We can no longer submit subject headings unless we follow the guidelines above.

    The Task Force on Named Buildings and Structures is examining whether or not these headings should be in the name file or in the subject file or in both. They are looking at a list of structures and their headings in order to see patterns of use. Reference structure is being studied along with where structures fit into the Functional Requirements of Bibliographic Records.

    The Subcommittee on Semantic Interoperability continues its work. They presented a program on a couple of successful projects. One is MACS (Multilingual Access to Subjects). This is a European subject heading list using French, German and English and its URL is http://infolab.kub.nl/prj/macs/. The second is WilsonWeb which maps multiple vocabularies into a single thesaurus. Semantic interoperability projects are used to improve user retrieval across various languages, subject vocabularies and classification schemes. The members are evaluating some projects, writing a glossary and bibliography.

    OCLC has asked SAC to form an advisory subcommittee for FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology. FAST can be used by personnel without extensive training and sets of LC subject headings can be converted into FAST headings. Please see http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/fast/.

    During my report to SAC, I mentioned the “inherently legal” subject heading subcommittee. Other libraries would love some help here and want us to work on that.

    The IFLA liaisons reported on the development of virtual clearinghouse of subject access tools. The list will include thesauri, subject heading systems and classification systems. It will eventually be on IFLANET and will be annotated.

    The SAC Subcommittee on Subject Reference Structures in Automated Systems finished their work in San Diego. It is hoped that library systems will use the guidelines to development better subject heading indexes. III members have started to work in proposing some of the changes to their vendor.

    The Library of Congress reported that new print editions of KF and of Q have been published. “Aged” has been changed to “Older people”, “Australian aborigines” to “Aboriginal Australians”; “Tasmanian aborigines” to “Aboriginal Tasmanians”. There have been many changes to headings in the discipline of botany. “Divide like” notes have been discontinued in Classification Web. The KB schedule for religious law will be published later this year. It includes KBR/KBU Canon law, KBM Jewish law, KBP Islamic law, KB Religious law in general. Aboriginal Australians have been moved from GN to DU – check the weekly classification lists and the Web.

    SAC is forming a subcommittee to work with PCC to develop a program on classification.

  • 2003 June Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    June 20-23, 2003, Toronto, Ontario

    The Subject Analysis Committee and its subcommittees met during the American Library Association annual meeting in Toronto. The SAC Subcommittee on Subject Analysis Training Materials is developing PowerPoint slides for its course on assigning subject headings and analyzing bibliographic resources. This course will be given prior to the ALA meeting in Orlando 2004. This will be an excellent course for newer law catalogers prior to learning law subject headings and it will be a wonderful refresher for experienced catalogers. This would make a good pre-conference for law catalogers. There will be training for people to teach the course once the development is finished.

    The Subcommittee on Semantic Operability has started a glossary, an inventory of projects and a list of evaluation criteria for the semantic operability projects. (HILT (http://hilt.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/) is an example of a semantic operability project.) As subcommittee members examine the various projects, they will be looking for

    • conditions which optimize effectiveness of harmonization, both among the indexing languages of the same type, and among languages of different types
    • simplification of existing languages
    • approaches to integration and harmonization of subject vocabularies used in various metadata standards to achieve effective and efficient resource discovery

    The Subcommittee on Subject Reference Structures in Automated Systems presented a panel which highlighted their report and the work of online system vendors to enhance the subject heading reference structures supported by MARC in their integrated library systems. The report makes recommendations for providing access to reference structures and better displays of reference structure and bibliographic records. The draft report is available at http://www.ala.org/Content/ContentGroups/ALCTS1/
    Cataloging_and_Classification_Section/Committees3/Subject_Analysis/
    Subject_Relations/Final_Report.htm

    The main committee met Sunday morning and Monday afternoon. In addition to reports from the various subcommittees and liaisons, a brief report from the Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office was read. The subject heading news included

    • establishing specific names for earthquakes, i.e. San Francisco Earthquake, Calif., 1906;
    • changing the subdivision -Journeys to -Travel
    • adding MARC 781 fields to geographic name authority records which has been held up since that field has still not been implemented for LC staff
    • -Great Britain-Wales-England are all now authorized for law subject headings and the instructions for use are in instruction sheet H955, Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. There are special instructions for legal topics that apply mainly to England or mainly to Great Britain.

    The classification news include

    • news about the success of ClassWeb
    • publication of a new edition of LC Classification Outline
    • use of both parentheses and angle brackets in the classification schedules with the parentheses indicating formerly valid but now obsolete numbers and with the angle brackets indicating optional number never used by LC but provided for other libraries
    • religious law schedules continue to be developed
    • classification practices for Asia calligraphy are being revised

    SAC is planning a program for ALA Orlando 2004 dealing with better subject access for Spanish speaking library patrons. SAC’s representative to the committee revising NISO Standard Z39.19 described the work of the committee to review the standard for construction, development and management of monolingual thesauri. SAC’s liaison to the PCC Task Force on SACO Program Development reported on the group’s work to restructure the SACO program to submit new subject heading proposals for inclusion in the Library of Congress Subject Headings.

    The Subject Analysis Committee meetings and programs at ALA are always an enjoyable experience and I wish more of you could attend.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 2003 January Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    January 2003, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    The Subject Analysis Committee and its subcommittees met during ALA mid-winter in Philadelphia. The SAC Subcommittee on Subject Analysis Training Materials has finished most of the intellectual component of a basic course in subject heading assignment and has begun to edit the course modules. Part of the course will be given during a panel presentation at ALA in Toronto and the hopefully the course itself will be given prior to ALA in Orlando 2004. It follows the outline developed by the serials cataloging workshops. This will be a worthwhile workshop for all law catalogers to learn, or relearn, the basics of subject analysis. The basic law subject heading presentation given at our basic cataloging institutes will go nicely with the SAC course.

    The Subcommittee on Semantic Interoperability is being to develop an inventory of known projects and guidelines for evaluating them. The group’s working definition of subject semantic interoperability is “The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange or harmonize cognate subject vocabularies and/or knowledge organization schemes to be used for the purposes of effective and efficient resource discovery without significant loss of lexical or connotative meaning and without special effort by the user.”

    The SAC Subcommittee on Subject Reference Structures in Automated Systems is close to finishing it recommendations for the display of reference structure and will present a panel discussion at ALA in Toronto in June.

    Items of interest presented at the two main committee meetings were implementation of KPB for Islamic law on January 20, 2003, the addition of data on form of geographic subdivision in field 781 on the authority records, the addition of field 667 if the heading is not to be used as a geographic subdivision, and the continuation of creating authority records for topical, form and chronological free floating subdivisions.

    Lynn El Hoshy, the LC liaison to the committee, reported on the proposed change to the use of the subdivision —Great Britain in law subject heading practice. Previously Great Britain was used law topics in England and Wales. It was also used for legal works that discussed England, Wales, and Great Britain. With the devolution of Wales, the British librarians felt that it would be better to use all three countries as geographic subdivisions and to use —Great Britain for works discussing all three countries. The CPSO comment period ends March 31, 2003 and Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings instruction sheet H955 will be revised to reflect the new practice once approved. The sheet will include a list of subjects where the law of Scotland differs from Great Britain and Wales.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 2002 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    2002 Mid-Winter and Annual Meeting Activities

    Even after three years as the representative to this Committee I barely begin to understand all the ins and outs of ALA operations, but it was a professionally enriching experience nonetheless. My vocabulary certainly expanded.

    Just constituted between ALA Midwinter and ALA in Atlanta is the SAC Subcommittee on Semantic Interoperability. Part of its charge is to survey “approaches to integration and harmonization of subject vocabularies and knowledge organization schemes used in various metadata standards for the purposes of effective and efficient resource discovery.” So discussion of metadata and subject headings is back on the ALA agenda. The SAC Subcommittee on Subject Reference Structures in Automated Systems is a continuing working group; they are drafting recommendations that could be offered to any library automation system’s vendor as “best practices” for subject authority reference display. This group’s final report should be to SAC at the next midwinter. While the Subcommittee on Fiction Guidelines may not offer much of paramount interest to law librarians, I think that the Subcommittee on Subject Analysis Training Materials will be of major interest. This group is working with PPC (Program for Cooperative Cataloging) to create training materials for a basic course in subject analysis using LCSH. While most of the examples will be non-law ones, I would suggest that once the materials are available for review we think about constituting a working group to come up with relevant law examples. The materials could then be incorporated more easily in law training workshops. Although I was appointed to this group, since I will no longer be attending ALA meetings, I felt I could not continue to participate. Just communicating on email will not work for such an ambitious undertaking.

    In addition to written reports from these subcommittees several program proposals were also germinated. “Getting the Most Out of Subject References in the Online Catalog” and a “test” module from the subject analysis training group entitled “Training for Effective Subject Cataloging” are both planned for Toronto in 2003.

    A very informative report offered to SAC each meeting comes from Lynn El-Hoshy, the Liaison to SAC from the Cataloging Policy and Support Office of the Library of Congress. In addition to the comings and goings of LC staff (for instance, Winston Tabb, the Associate Librarian for Library Services, is to be the Dean of University Libraries at Johns Hopkins University), I’m always interested in what is happening with LC’s library system implementation. The best news for all of us is that beginning on a trial basis July 1, 2002, subject authorities (names and titles, too) will be available via the web at http://authorities.loc.gov. LC is also in the final stages of its project to create authority records to control free-floating subdivisions. Have you searched lately? –LAW AND LEGISLATION was loaded into RLIN in November of 2001.

    May all your subject analysis be easy and the subject heading you need in LCSH.

    Submitted by
    Melody Lembke
    Associate Library for Technical Services
    Los Angeles County Law Library

  • 2001 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    2001 Mid-Winter and Annual Meeting Activities

    Given the levels of hierarchy through which each course of action must be considered (see levels outlined above) SAC still manages to get a lot accomplished.

    The Subcommittee on Metadata and Subject Analysis submitted its final report to SAC. This report will be posted soon to the SAC web site at http://www.ala.org/alcts/organization/ccs/sac/subjecta.html. Until that happens the report can be found at http://www.govst.edu/users/gddcasey/sac/msafinalreport.html, the web site of the chair. This committee was then disbanded; however, a related committee may soon be constituted to work on the issues of interoperability of metadata subject heading lists.

    A new subcommittee was formed at the ALA midwinter meeting with its charge finally formalized via email. But the subcommittee was renamed again at the San Francisco annual meeting; so the SAC Subcommittee on Guidelines for Application of Genre Headings was renamed the SAC Subcommittee on Fiction Guidelines. I mention this only to remind you why name authority work can be as much of a challenge as subject heading reference structures! Speaking of reference structures, the Subcommittee on Subject Reference Structures in Automated Systems held a very active working session at the annual meeting identifying issues associated with reference structures in the automated environment and dividing the issues among subcommittee members. These issues are to be explored and good and bad examples found in existing systems. The final result is to be a position paper that should guide systems designers in presenting syndetic structures effectively. If one is willing to work, one need not be an official SAC member to participate in such subcommittees. For instance, I am now on the list serve for this Subcommittee chaired by Sara Shatford Layne of UCLA.

    In my 2000 report I mentioned that SAC had sent a letter to Winston Tabb, the Associate Librarian of the Library of Congress, stressing the need for web-based access to a thesaurus-style display of LC Subject Headings. Mr. Tabb has replied to SAC stating that a thesaurus-style display is available through Classification Web, which must be made available on a cost recovery basis. So no free web access to thesaurus-style display is available at this time.

    One of the most interesting reports of the many liaisons to SAC continues to be that of the Lynn El-Hoshy of the Library of Congress. At the midwinter meeting, she reported that approximately 600 subject heading authority records that included the terms Afro-American and Afro-Americans were changed to African American and African Americans. You have probably noticed these changes by now. Watch for other proposed changes such as “Handicapped” to “Disabled persons” and a new heading for “Developed countries.” Ms. El-Hoshy explained that web access to LC authority records would be delayed until after the next upgrade to the Voyager system. LC will probably not upgrade until February 2002. Happy Birthday to Cataloging in Publication (CIP) as it marks its 30th year. No wonder I feel like it’s been around forever. I was 20 when it began! Also, LC plans new editions of classification schedules for KL-KWX by late 2001.

    At the annual meeting much discussion focused on future possible activities for SAC as a result of the draft Bibliographic Control of Web Resources: A Library of Congress Action Plan (http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/bibcontrol/draftplan.html). Please take a look at this report if you have a chance.

    Submitted by
    Melody Lembke
    Technical Services Librarian
    Los Angeles County Law Library
    AALL Representative to ALA, ALCTS, SAC

  • 2000 Annual Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    2000 Mid-Winter and Annual Meeting Activities

    Although much of the work of the Subject Analysis Committee (SAC) is conducted via email during the year, I still have a very full binder of agenda items, correspondence and reports after only two meetings. SAC has not only very active subcommittees, but also numerous representatives to SAC make reports at its meetings. Much of my first year has just been “getting with the program,” that is discovering what each of the subcommittees of SAC does. I have listed in an appendix all of the current subcommittees as of ALA annual meeting in July 2000. For the latest information, see also the SAC page at: http://www.ala.org/alcts/organization/ccs/sac/subjecta.html.

    Two SAC subcommittee reports should be of interest to the law cataloging community. “Report on Proposed Headings” by the SAC Task Force on Library of Congress Subject Heading Revisions Relating to the Poor People’s Policy (http://www.ala.org/alcts/organization/ccs/sac/pptfreport.html) has already been accepted by the ALCTS Board. Library of Congress considered the report as recommendations for change and is already moving forward on revisions to some of its headings. “Subject Data in the Metadata Record, Recommendations and Rationale” (http://www.ala.org/alcts/organization/ccs/sac/metarept2.html) by the Subcommittee on Metadata and Subject Analysis has already been shared with the IFLA community by Lois Mai Chan. SAC has proposed a program for ALA 2001 in San Francisco on “Subject Access and Classification in Metadata for Digital Resources.”

    In addition to the above reports, the Subcommittee to Promote Subject Relationships/Reference Structures has drafted a letter to Winston Tabb, the Associate Librarian of the Library of Congress, stressing the need for web-based access to a thesaurus-style display of LC Subject Headings. Such an on-line display has not been available since LC implemented its integrated library system and LCXR was taken off line in January 2000. The LC representative to SAC, Ms. Lynn El-Hoshy, announced that name and authority records should again be available for down loading via Z39.50 by the end of this year.

    Mr. Giles Martin, an assistant Editor of the Dewey Decimal Classification, asked for the legal cataloging community’s help. A discussion paper on proposed changes to 340 Law is mounted at the Dewey Web site: http://www.oclc.org/fp. The editors of Dewey are soliciting outside opinions on these proposed changes. The comments are due to the Dewey Editorial Office by August 31, 2000. Mr. Martin said that some of the changes are to the European Union and the comparative and international sections of the scheme. The SAC Subcommittee to Review Dewey 340 Law includes two law librarians, John Hostage and Marie Whited.

    Submitted by
    Melody Lembke
    Technical Services Librarian
    Los Angeles County Law Library
    AALL Representative to ALA, ALCTS, SAC


    Appendix to 2000 SAC Representative’s report.

    Current structure of the Subject Analysis Committee of Association for Library Collections & Technical Services, a division of the American Library Association.

    • Subcommittee on Form Headings/Subdivisions Implementation (disbanded midwinter 2000)
    • Task Force on LCSH Subject Headings Revisions Relating to the Poor (report submitted midwinter 2000)
    • Subcommittee on Revision of the Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction.
    • Subcommittee on Metadata and Subject Analysis
    • Subcommittee to Promote Subject Relationships/Reference Structures
    • Subcommittee to Review Dewey 540 Law
    • Subcommittee to Review Dewey 305-306 Social groups, culture and institutions
    • Subcommittee to Review Dewey 004-006 Data processing; Computer Science

    Representatives to SAC include:

    • Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee, Pamela P. Brown
    • LC Decimal Classification Division, Julianne Beall
    • Sears List of Subject Headings, Patricia Kuhr
    • MARBI, Bonnie Dede
    • LC Cataloging Policy and Support Office, Lynn El-Hoshy

  • 1999 June Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    June 1999 Report, New Orleans, Louisiana

    The Subject Analysis Committee met for five hours over two days. They formed a new task force to review and make recommendations on subject headings found in the 1999 ALA Council Resolution 37 (a resolution by Sandy Berman concerning subject headings relating to poverty). Chairs of the various subcommittees which met earlier in the convention gave reports on the status of their subcommittees. The Subcommittee to Promote Subject Relationships/Reference Structures met to plan a discussion forum for midwinter. During the year they will examine data base products and their use of subject reference structure. The Subcommittee on Form Headings/Subdivisions Implementation held a repeat forum on subfield v. They plan to prepare a recon checklist for subfield v so that catalogers can watch for certain topic/form subjects during recon projects and for their automatic authority projects. There was also some discussion of 655 genre indexes and how to display these indexes.

    The two metadata subcommittees also gave reports. The Subcommittee on Metadata and Classification was disbanded upon acceptance of their final report which recommended the use of classification in internet sites composed of individual resources. The sites examined were listed in Gerry McKiernan’s Beyond Bookmarks and used either LC, Dewey or National Library of Medicine classification schemes. Even though some of the sites were small, classification was found to be helpful in arranging resources. Further work on classification will be done by the Subcommittee on Metadata and Subject Analysis. The subcommittee has been studying the issues relating to subject data in metadata schemes, mainly Dublin Core. They have recommended using controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and classification in metadata records.

    The Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office liaison, Lynn El-Hoshy, reported on subject cataloging developments at LC. Most cataloging activities will be impacted by the implementation of LC ILS in August. Subject Headings Weekly Lists will be suspended until Sept. 8, 1999 due to the implementation. New headings will be proposed during that time and will appear on lists distributed after Sept. 8. LC started using subfield earlier this year. For awhile distribution of the subdivision authority records was halted due to a programing oversight with the MARC tag 008/17. The problem has been solved and the records are being distributed.

    MARC tag 781 linking fields to indicate the subdivision form of geographic heading are being included in new and revised subject authority records. There is planning for a project to add MARC tag 781’s to existing subject authority records. However, plans have not been worked out for adding them to geographic name authority records. Be on the lookout for the change from Trade unions to Labor unions. A new free floating subdivision ­Labor unions will be authorized for use the headings for occupational groups, i.e. Agricultural laborers­Labor unions (May Subd. Geog.). The new free floating subdivision ­Reference books will be used under subjects and this will replace the heading Reference books­[subject].

    Ms. El-Hoshy also gave a list of schedules (K, KF, KJV-KJW) sent to CDS for publication.

    New editions of KDZ, KH-KH and KJ-KKZ are being proofread for probable publication later this year. The new K form tables have been published. Draft classification schedules for KB (comparative religious law), KBR (canon law history) and KBS (modern canon law) are being done and work on KBP (Islamic law) has begun.

    This is my last SAC report. Thank you for the opportunity to represent the law cataloging community at ALA. I hope all of you take the time to go to ALA someday. There are panels, forums and committee meetings relevant to all catalogers, including law catalogers, at ALA.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 1999 February Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    January/February 1999 Report, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    The Subject Analysis Committee and its subcommittees held seven meetings during ALA Midwinter in Philadelphia, January 29-February 1.

    SAC’s liaison to MARBI, Bonnie Dede, reported on the status of MARBI proposals and asked for recommendations concerning 98-16R “Nonfiling characters in all MARC formats”. These nonfiling characters exist in some subject headings. It was mentioned that the name for the harmonized United States and Canada MARCformats is MARC21. Lois Mai Chan reported on IFLA and their project MUSE (Multilingual Subject Entry) , an attempt to link and harmonize LCSH, RAMEAU (French), and Schlagwortnormdatei (German). IFLA has asked for comments on their “Guidelines for OPAC displays” which is available at http://www.ifla.org/ifla/VII/s13/guide/opac.htm.

    LC Cataloging Policy and Support Office’s SAC liaison, Lynn el-Hoshy, reported that LC is not using the new geographic area codes for Hong Kong and the former Soviet republics. They will begin to use them after the ILS implementation. The change from Wade-Giles to pinyin for Chinese names will impact place names, subject headings and the classification schedules. The next issue of the Cataloging Service Bulletin will include the place name changes. LC’s adoption of core level cataloging includes special instructions for subject heading assignment. Subjects will be assigned for the primary focus of the book and not for secondary or tertiary aspects. The class number will correspond to the primary focus of the work. New subject headings will be established for core level titles when needed following the same instructions as for full level.

    The new start date for form subdivisions implementation is now February 16. At that time catalogers will begin to use subfield $v in cataloging and authority records. There will be a project to recode form divisions in existing subject authority records. These records will be distributed on the weekly tapes. In order to use the subfield $v, please refer both to the authority records and to Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, 1998 Update Number 2. Once the authority system can accept the new 18x fields, LC will create subdivision records for the more than 3,100 free floating subdivisions. The 073 field will be used to identify the controlling instructions from Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, H1095-1200. There will be basic usage statements in the subdivision authority records. Some subdivisions will have two authority records – one for topic and one for form, e.g. subfield $v Periodicals and subfield $xPeriodicals. Records for two subdivisions in a string will be coded for the function of the first subdivision, i.e. $xForeign relations$vTreaties. The new edition of the free floating manual will contain the 18x tags. No work on subfield $y, free floating chronological subdivisions, is being planned until after ILS implementation.

    Another new field appearing in the authority records is the 781 field which indicates the subdivision form of geographic headings. The 781 field will appear in new and revised authority records but will only be added to existing records as time permits. Hopefully this field will replace geographic information in the 667 and 680 fields.

    The list of free floating subdivisions under individuals now includes composers and authors. New editions and updates to subject headings manuals will reflect the single list. Classification schedule HM will be in no. 273 of LC Classification: Additions and Changes.

    Please see http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/

    The Subcommittee to Promote Subject Relationships/Reference Structures is preparing a panel on subject referencing in OPAC’s for New Orleans ALA. In their sampling , the members found that only about 50% of the OPAC’s display broader terms. They feel all the subject heading references should be displayed and available to aid patrons in searching subjects. Many users search subjects by keyword and about 30% of users search subjects by first searching title keywords. References are needed to provide additional access points and to better show the context of subject heading topics.

    The Form Headings/Subdivisions Implementation Subcommittee held an educational panel where we actually got to do some exercises using the subfield $v. The exercises on form coding may eventually be posted on http://www.pitt.edu/~agtaylor/ala/implem.htm

    Consider subfield $v Cases, subfield $xLegislation histories and Harvard University$xExaminations$xMathematics and you can understand some of the dilemmas involved. As mentioned above, information on coding will be given in subdivision authority records and in Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. This is a dynamic subject as demonstrated by the fact that some subdivisions coded with diamonds for form early on have now been changed to topical. The speakers suggested we all wait until the dust has settled before we begin changing bibliographic records. Keep in mind the following:

    1. Ask LC when a practice seems strange
    2. Ask if your system can do global changes for a specific location in a string
    3. Ask if your system can distinguish , display, and index subfield $v versus subfield $x and do you want to distinguish yet?
    4. Ask what you would like your vendor to do with subfield $v

    The Subcommittee on Metadata and Classification is evaluating web sites that use classification to organize access to web resources of interest to the site organizer. Members have drawn up a set of criteria to be used for evaluation that will enable them to submit a report on the functions of classification as related to organizing and accessing electronic resources. An example of a classed site is http://link.bubl.ac.uk/ISC2

    Metadata and Subject Analysis Subcommittee is working on defining the subject element in the Dublin Core. The element should be flexible, adaptable, and as specific as possible. The element should accommodate both keyword and controlled vocabulary. Whenever controlled vocabulary terms are used, the source of the term should be given, i.e. LCSH, MESH, etc. The work of the group should be finished around ALA 2000 midwinter.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 1998 June Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    June 1998 Report, Washington, D.C.

    The ALA ALCTS/CCS Subject Analysis Committee and its subcommittees held meetings June 26-29 during the ALA Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C.

    Various subcommittee and liaisons gave reports at the two SAC meetings. One of the most popular reports is given by the Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office’s liaison to SAC, Lynn El-Hoshy. She reported that the subdivision –Biography is no longer valid under authors unless it has been printed in LCSH. –History–To 1500 is now free-floating under topical headings. Bibliography–Bibliography has been replaced by Bibliography of bibliographies and Bibliographical literature. [topic] in television headings have been changed to [topic] on television headings. Opening statements (Law) has been approved for use as a subject heading. In the fall, LC will begin to include geographic names subdivision forms in MARC tag 781 linking fields. These fields will be added to new and revised subject heading authority records for geographic names. Gary Strawn from Northwestern has provided LC with a file of geographic subdivisions and this data will be used to add linking fields to the existing subject authority records. Mr. Strawn is from Northwestern University Library and has done a lot of work on using authority files in OPAC’s At the end of 1998, there should be new editions or versions of some of the history schedules, K, KD, KE, KF, KJV-KJW, K form tables, and Class M. There will be a 1998 edition of KZ later this year that should clarify how to subarrange treaties and which will provide more numbers for peace and boundary treaties which used to be in D-F. LC is working on a revision of HM for sociology. Many of the revised schedules should appear in the last update for 1998 of Classification Plus which will be on a newer version of Folio.

    The Form Headings/Subdivisions Implementation Subcommittee heard from Tom Yee, Acting Head of CPSO. He reported that LC will be using Gary Strawn’s subdivision authority file as the basis for creating authority records for free-floating subdivisions. The files will be edited by LC which hopes to distribute them in the fall. The subdivision authority files for form subdivisions should also be distributed in the fall. LC hopes to begin using subfield v in bibliographic records in November. The guidelines for assigning form subdivisions will be included in 1998 Update Number 2 to the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings which should be published in the fall. The creation of authority records for 155 form headings will occur sometime in the future. Watch the CPSO home page for developments. Some libraries, such as Curry College in Massachusetts, have created search indexes for form headings. These headings and subdivisions will be useful if our OPAC’s display them well. The subcommittee plans to have an educational forum in Philadelphia on form headings and subdivisions.

    The Subcommittee to Promote Subject Relationships/Reference Structures is working on a program for ALA New Orleans to promote the better use of existing subject references in OPAC’s. Some systems display narrower and used for terms but few display broader and related terms. There is a wealth of information available in subject authority records which should be displayed in a friendly manner to the users.

    The two SAC Metadata subcommittees continued to learn about Metadata in anticipation of making recommendations concerning the applicability of subject headings and class numbers to Metadata. The subcommittee dealing with classification and Metadata will be reviewing some of the sites listed in Gerry McKiernan’s Beyond Bookmarks site to see how they use classification.

    The general subcommittee on the use of subject analysis in Metadata discussed the subject field in the Dublin Core Metadata record which allows for keywords, controlled vocabulary, and classification. Subject analysis in other types of Metadata records will be reviewed later. The subcommittee will begin to study the use of controlled vocabulary in the records. Issues to be examined include single or multiple vocabularies, metathesaurus, specificity, syntax, term relationships, consistency, application guidelines, etc. The two subcommittees have a site at http://www.govst.edu/users/gddcasey/sac/metadata.htm. These are going to be interesting subcommittees which warrant watching.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 1998 January Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    January 1998 Report, New Orleans, Louisiana

    The ALA ALCTS/CCS Subject Analysis Committee and its subcommittees held meetings January 9-12 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in New Orleans.

    The Committee heard reports from its various subcommittees and liaisons. Lynn El-Hoshy of LC’s Cataloging and Support Office reported on developments in subject cataloging and on other items of interest. LC is planning for its bicentennial in 2000 and information is available at http://lcweb.loc.gov/bicentennial/. Cataloging Distribution Service will begin public testing of the web version of Cataloger’s Desktop and Classification Plus this spring. Watch their home page for information. Barbara Tillett has a three year appointment to work on LC’s integrated library system and Tom Yee will be Acting Chief of the Office. David Reser has joined the staff of the Office. The new address for reporting catalog discrepancies and cataloging policy questions is cpso@loc.gov and for the latest policy statements see the web site http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso.

    Developments in subject heading policy include information about –History and the changes to the free floating chronological subdivisions for centuries that are documented in the 1997 no. 2 update to the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings. The use of the free floating chronological century subdivisions has been authorized under subdivisions such as –Economic conditions and –Social conditionsJury nullificationInternet addiction, and Paparazzi are just a few of the new LC subject headings. Law of the sea has been established for public international law relating to jurisdiction over the oceans and exploitation of marine resources. Maritime law is now the heading for commercial topics relating to the sea. –Electronic information resources, a topical free floating subdivision, has been established for printed guides to digital materials.

    Developments in classification include the publication of KZ and the new edition of J, which includes the old JX and the new JZ. JX contains references to K, KZ and JZ and this is the last time JX will be published. Jolande Goldberg’s introduction to KZ/JZ is now available from CDS. The new form division tables for the civil law schedules are finished but will not be applied until the new editions of the impacted schedules are published. A new edition of H has been published incorporating changes to HJ public finance. These changes were made in consultation with the Law Library of Congress. Work has begun on revising H-HG and these revisions will be published in LC Classification: Additions & Changes.

    The subcommittee reviewing the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, Division of Bibliographic Control, Working Group of the Section on Classification and Indexing’s document titled “Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages” has been disbanded upon completion of its work. The IFLA document identifies nine construction principles and two application principles that should exist in each subject heading system. Eleven subject systems from ten countries are used to illustrate the principles with actual examples. It is evident that not all systems address all the principles and that the principles are widely scattered throughout the systems’ literature. The subcommittee reported these findings and others to IFLA.

    The Subcommittee to Promote Subject Relationships/Reference Structures is working on promoting the use of reference structures in on-line systems. Many systems display narrower terms and “used for” references. However, broader terms and related terms are not displayed. In addition to display, references should be identified and grouped clearly. In short, most systems do not take advantages of the wealth of information provided by subject reference systems.

    The SAC Subcommittee on Form Headings/Subdivision Implementation continues to push for form access via 655 form headings and $v form subdivisions. Tom Yee, Acting Chief of CPSO, reported that planning for the LC integrated library system and competing priorities for LC staff members has meant that work is progressing slowly for form heading and subdivision implementation. Before the authority components can be implemented, the LC authority applications have to be updated. The implications of $v indexing are being gathered and studied. Form heading/subdivision implementation will be slow at best.

    SAC is planning a panel on subject systems for the summer meeting in Washington, D.C. It will be a discussion of LCSH, DDC and Yahoo and is titled: “One Size Fits All Subject Access Systems: Tailoring General Schemes to Meet the Needs of Specific Communities of Searchers”.

    The two newest subcommittees deal with metadata and classification/subject analysis. An interesting report on classification and metadata can be found at http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/DESIRE/classification. Some of the issues to be studied are creation of metadata, definition, need for subject analysis, Dublin core, search engines, mapping, vocabulary, etc.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 1997 June Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    June 1997 Report, San Francisco, California

    The ALA ALCTS/CCS Subject Analysis Committee met June 29 and 30. The various subcommittees met June 27-30. SAC sponsored an institute on subject headings for electronic resources and a panel on form genre headings at the annual meeting.

    At the June 29 SAC meeting Lynn el-Hoshy of Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office gave an update on subject cataloging. LC has a new thesauri homepage at http://lcweb.loc.gov/lexico but it doesn’t contain LCSH yet. The Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO) homepage is at http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso. The 20th edition of LCSH and the first update to the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings are available.

    LC is working on their internal authority systems to get the systems to accept 155 field for form/genre subject authority headings, subfield v for form subdivisions, and 18x fields for subdivision authority records. It is still expected that the computer files cataloging team will be the first at LC to use 655 and subfield v in their cataloging records.

    LC is reviewing the memo on the subdivision –History with a view towards giving better explanations of when and how to use this subdivision. Changes are being made regarding headings with the preposition “in” to express portrayal of persons, bodies, places and topics in various media. (…) in the press has been replaced by the free floating subdivision –Press coverageIsrael-Arab conflicts is being replaced by Arab-Israeli conflict with four chronological subdivisions. Leaks (Disclosure of information) and Term limits (Public office) have been established.

    Thirteen schedules have been placed in Classification Plus. KZ and JZ are done. An updated edition of J is due late 1997. Ukraine has been moved to European law schedule and given the class letters KKY.

    The SAC Subcommittee on Subject Authority File Recommendations reported that USMARC currently has adequate coding for recording the history of subject heading changes and that earlier forms of subject headings entered be in a 4xx field. If the earlier heading does not have a one to one relationship with the new heading, then a reference record should be made. They also made recommendations for automatic validation of headings.

    SAC has formed new subcommittees to study Metadata and subject analysis. The SAC panel for 1998 ALA will be on subject access systems.

    The subcommittee studying form genre headings heard from Tom Yee of the Library of Congress Cataloging Policy and Support Office who reported that LC hopes to begin using subfield v in spring 1998. After the computer files catalogers have started using the 655 headings, other subjects where form access is especially important will be phased into the creation and use of these headings.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu

  • 1997 February Report

    Report of the AALL Representative to the ALA ALCTS/CCS
    Subject Analysis Committee
    February 1997 Report, Washington, D.C.

    The ALA ALCTS/CCS Subject Analysis Committee met February 16 and 17, 1997 during the Midwinter Meeting in Washington, D.C. A number of reports were given by subcommittee chairs and Library of Congress staff.

    Letters from Beacher Wiggins, Library of Congress Acting Director for Cataloging, addressed issues raised by SAC concerning subject subdivision order. He agreed with SAC that changing the order of certain subdivision strings would result in changing the meaning of the strings and hence the order of subdivision string proposals could not be adopted across the board.

    LC is working on implementation of subfield “v” and “x55” fields. LC will continue to use subfield “x” for subdivisions that represent first order political subdivisions of countries, e.g., “xStates”. Practice where topical subdivisions are not subdivided geographically because they are used as free floating subdivisions under geographic areas will be better documented. LC will continue to review free floating subdivisions in order to determine if the subdivisions should be subdivided by place. LC is currently studying the use of the subdivision “xHistory” and hopes to reduce the number of cases where “xHistory” is not used, hopes to revise H1647, the history memo, and hopes to examine the use of chronological subdivision dates. The Five-Year Progress Report on Subject Subdivisions Conference Recommendations has been posted to LC MARVEL.

    Lynn El-Hoshy of LC’s Cataloging Policy and Support Office reported on subject cataloging developments at LC. Sometime this spring CPSO will have a home page on LC MARVEL which will provide links to the weekly subject heading lists and to with various documentation and announcements. The fifth edition of the Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings has been published in four volumes with a glossary. Many of the memo’s have been expanded and examples are given with USMARC content designation. Form subdivisions are identified by diamonds in the margin of the free floating subdivision list.

    CPSO has been replacing subjects containing the word “man” with gender neutral terms. The subdivision “xRates and tables” has been replaced by “xRates” and “xTables”. AALL’s recommendations concerning changes to the heading “Constitutions” and “Constitutional law” were accepted by LC. The instructions for these terms will be published in 1997 Update No. 1 to SCM: Subject Headings. The subdivision “xProclamations” was canceled and the subject heading Proclamations may now be subdivided geographically. Subdivision “xManufactures” has been replaced by “Manufactures (May Subd. Geog.)” and “Manufacturing industries (May Subd. Geog.)”

    Thirteen classification schedules have been published since being input into the MARC Classification Format. Later this year some of the P schedules, KF and M will be published.

    Other schedules are being either proofread or reviewed. The KZ/JZ drafts are in their final stages.

    LC has decided to relax the practice of assigning alternative numbers to titles within a classed together set by allowing an alternative number not to be given if classification development work is needed for the alternative number and by allowing the catalogers to omit the alternative number if too much work would be involved.

    SAC will be sponsoring an ALA pre-conference institute on subject cataloging of electronic resources in San Francisco, June 26-27.

    Much of the SAC work takes place at the subcommittee level. The Computer Files Subcommittee was notified that computer file catalogers at LC will begin using form/genre headings and subdivisions as an experiment once the subdivision authority records have been created. A list of SCM: Subject Cataloging memo’s concerning computer files was distributed. They include Databases H1520, Electronic serials H1580.5, Software H2070, Establishing certain entities…H405, Free floating subdivisions H1095, Visual materials H2230. Classification is covered in SCM: Classification F710.

    The Subcommittee on Subject Authority File Recommendations has been investigating ways of recording the history of subject heading changes and ways of allowing automatic validation of heading subdivision strings via authority records and coding. The group should have a final document ready for ALA in June. Various proposals include requiring “4xx” and “5xx” references to track relationships between current and deleted headings whenever possible and requiring subjects deleted in favor of names be retained as reference records. LC will begin to create authority records for form/genre subdivisions in late 1997.

    The Subcommittee on Form Headings/Subdivisions Implementation will sponsor a panel June 28 at ALA. Work is proceeding at LC regarding the implementation of subfield “v” and “655” for form/genre. Tom Yee of LC’s CPSO reported on those developments. “155” authority records for form headings and “18x” records for free floating subdivisions will be created eventually.

    Currently LC is identifying form and topical subdivisions in preparation for the authority record creation. Hopefully by late fall the computer files catalogers will begin using “655” headings and “v” subdivisions. Changes and file maintenance will be postponed until LC has an integrated library system. They will continue to disseminate information on this topic.

    Marie E. Whited
    Lillian Goldman Library at Yale Law School
    marie.whited [at] yale.edu